Critical Metals for Sustainable Technologies and their Recycling Potential

The focus of this study lies on future sustainable technologies (FST), such as renewable energies and energy efficient technologies, which will make use of indium (In), germanium (Ge), tantalum (Ta), PGM [platinum group metals, such as ruthenium (Ru), platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd)], tellurium (Te), cobalt (Co), lithium (Li), gallium (Ga) and RE (rare earths)1. These are also classified as ‘green minor metals’, which are the basis for cleaner technology innovation. Other interesting metals like titanium or magnesium (used for light weight applications) are not addressed by this study but should be also an issue for further UNEP investigations and activities in the future.