Plug-in hybrid electric cars: Market development, technical analysis and CO₂ emission scenarios for Germany

Study on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety

This study examines the deviation of real-world CO₂ emissions of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) from type-approval values, the driving factors of these deviations, and implications for achieving the German climate protection targets for transport by 2030. Following a comprehensive market analysis, the energy consumption for typical vehicle configurations under various conditions is calculated using a vehicle simulation model. Using the model results, the expected real-world tailpipe emissions for the PHEV fleet up to the year 2030 are determined.