A list of publications by Oeko-Institut which are available online can be found here. Subscribe to Oeko-Institut's latest publications as RSS feed.

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Carbon Pricing and Complementary Policies - Consistency of the Policy Mix for Decarbonizing Buildings in Germany

Year of publication: 11 / 2021

While it is widely acknowledged that carbon pricing plays an important role in driving the transition towards a low-carbon energy system, its interaction with complementary instruments is discussed controversially. The analysis of…

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Phase-out regulations for fossil fuel boilers at EU and national level

authors: Braungardt, S. | Keimeyer, F. | Bürger, V. | Tezak, B. | Klinski, S.
Year of publication: 10 / 2021

Systemic challenges of Germany's heat transition – a measure and policy roadmap for a climate neutral building stock

eceee 2021 Summer Study proceedings - Panel: 7. Policies for a green recovery in the buildings sector

authors: Köhler, B. | Bürger, V. | Mayer, R. | Engelmann, P. | Sterchele, P. | Heilig, J. | Berneiser, J. | Sandrock, M. | Braungardt, S. | Hesse, T.
Year of publication: 10 / 2021

To reduce Germany's total GHG emissions by 95 % by 2050, the building sector must be completely decarbonised. Due to the inertia of the sector, it is necessary to significantly accelerate the renovation of buildings and the…

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Are economic principles a driver or a barrier for energy efficiency and climate policy?

eceee 2021 Summer Study proceedings - Panel: 2. Policy innovations to ensure, scale and sustain action

authors: Braungardt, S. | Schumacher, K. | Wolff, F. | Keimeyer, F. | Aydemir, A. | Quack, D. | Bürger, V. | Lünenbürger, B.
Year of publication: 10 / 2021

Economic principles are at the heart of key policies addressing or affecting energy efficiency. Minimum energy performance standards are typically based on an economic efficiency principle, where the ambition of the minimum requirements…

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Technical assistance for assessing options to establish an EU-wide green label with a view to promote the use of renewable energy coming from new installations

Final report under framework contract MOVE/ENER/SRD/498-2016 Lot 3

authors: Korteweg, L. | Stojanovic, T. | Schmidt, P. | Rademaekers, K. | Altmann, M. | Bürger, V. | Zerta, M. | Gleiter, T. | Wingenbach, M. | Dieroff, J. | Hennenberg, K. | Seebach, D. | Timpe, C. | Hermann, A. | Yearwood, J. | Smit, T.
Year of publication: 06 / 2021

This report defines and assesses options to establish an EU-wide green label with a view to promote the use of renewable energy coming from new installations as required by Art. 19 (13) of the Renewable Energy Directive recast (EU)…

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Concepts for the enforcement of climate protection laws in the building sector including third parties

authors: Klinski, S. | Keimeyer, F. | Hesse, T. | Bürger, V. | Oschatz, B.
Year of publication: 03 / 2020

The research project contributes to the most effective implementation of the German Energy Saving Ordinance and Renewable Energies Heat Act by the German federal states – especially in light of the planned merger of the existing…

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The proposed national emissions trading system in Germany

Discussion of implications for the building sector

authors: Braungardt, S. | Bürger, V. | Hartwig, J.
Year of publication: 02 / 2020

The paper analysed existing ETSs covering the buildings sector and draws conclusions for the proposed national ETS in Germany.

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Impact Assessment on the Environmental, Social and Economic Effects of the 2030 Sectoral Targets in the Federal Government’s Climate Action Plan 2050


authors: Repenning, J. | Schumacher, K. | Bergmann, T. | Blanck, R. | Böttcher, H. | Bürger, V. | Cludius, J. | Cook, V. | Emele, L. | Jörß, W. | Hennenberg, K. | Hermann, H. | Loreck, C. | Ludig, S. | Matthes, F. | Nissen, C. | Scheffler, M. | Wiegmann, K. | Zell-Ziegler, C. | Fleiter, T. | Fries, B. | Sievers, L. | Pfaff, M. | Thamling, N. | Rau, D. | Hartwig, J. | Welter, S. | Lösch, O. | Wirz, A.
Year of publication: 11 / 2019

The analyses highlighted three main issues:

  • The targets set for the various sectors can be achieved by means of a range of different strategies.
  • From a macroeconomic perspective, all implementation strategies covered by the study are…

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Third party access to district heating systems - Challenges for the practical implementation

authors: Bürger, V. | Steinbach, J. | Kranzl, L. | Müller, A.
Year of publication: 09 / 2019

District heating (DH) can become a key infrastructure for achieving climate targets in the heating sector. In order to support the uptake of renewables in the DH sector, the European Commission proposed to open DH infrastructures to…

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Evaluating the renewable heating and efficiency obligation for existing buildings – insights into the mechanisms of mandatory building requirements

authors: Pehnt, M. | Weiß, U. | Fritz, S. | Jessing, D. | Bürger, V. | Kenkmann, T. | Lambrecht, K. | Steinbach, J.
Year of publication: 07 / 2019

Germany’s third largest state, Baden Württemberg, was the first to mandate the installation of renewable heating technologies in 2008. Owners of a heating system need to employ a minimum share of renewable energy of 15% of the heat…

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How to include cooling in the EU Renewable Energy Directive? Strategies and policy implications

authors: Braungardt, S. | Bürger, V. | Zieger, J. | Bosselaar, L.
Year of publication: 03 / 2019

The EU Renewable Energy Directive (RES-Directive) establishes a policy framework for the promotion of renewable energy in the EU. Under the framework of the RES-Directive, EU Member States have adopted national renewable energy action…

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Contribution of Renewable Cooling to the Renewable Energy Target of the EU

authors: Braungardt, S. | Bürger, V. | Zieger, J. | Kenkmann, T.
Year of publication: 06 / 2018

This report collects background information on current and future cooling demand in the EU as well as renewable cooling technologies and discusses possible methodological approaches for calculating renewable cooling in the RES-Directive.

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German Energiewende—different visions for a (nearly) climate neutral building sector in 2050

authors: Bürger, V. | Hesse, T. | Köhler, B. | Palzer, A. | Engelmann, P.
Year of publication: 04 / 2018

In order to contribute to the German Energiewende (energy transition) adequately, the building sector has to be almost completely decarbonised in the long term. Our analysis investigates how the German building stock can be transformed…

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Study on Technical Assistance in Realisation of the 2016 Report on Renewable Energy, in preparation of the Renewable Energy Package for the Period 2020 -2030 in the European Union ("RES-Study")

ENER/C1/2014 -688

authors: Bauknecht, D. | Förster, H. | Hünecke, K. | Bracker, J. | Bürger, V. | Cook, V. | Emele, L. | Heinemann, C. | Hesse, T. | Kasten, P. | Keimeyer, F. | Monteforte, M. | Ritter, D. | Schütte, S. | Vogel, M. | Winger, C. | Zell-Ziegler, C. | Capros, P. | de Vita, A. | Evangelopoulou, S. | Lescot, D. | Tuille, F. | Courtel, J. | Olesen, A. | Laugesen, F. | Brodsted, M. | Najdawi, C. | Brückmann, R.
Year of publication: 03 / 2017

The objective of this study is to provide technical assistance in the preparation of the 2016 Report on Renewable Energy, in preparation of the Renewable Energy Package for the period 2020-2030 in the European Union. Key findings are:

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Mainstreaming RES

Study on the impact assessment for a new Directive mainstreaming deployment of renewable energy and ensuring that the EU meets its 2030 renewable energy target - Final task 1 & 2 report

authors: Veum, K. | Uslu, A. | Jansen, J. | dalla Longa, F. | Bauknecht, D. | Bürger, V. | Heinemann, C. | Haller, M. | Ritter, D. | Vogel, M. | Brückmann, R. | van Elburg, J. | Kleiwegt, E. | Pohl, I. | Kahles, M. | Wizinger, S. | Nysten, J.
Year of publication: 11 / 2016

Laying down the pathways to nearly zero-energy buildings

A toolkit for policy makers

authors: Kranzl, L. | Toleikyte, A. | Müller, A. | Hummel, M. | Heiskanen, E. | Matschoss, K. | Rohde, C. | Kockat, J. | Steinbach, J. | Regodón, I. | Boneta, M. | Pagliano, L. | Pietrobon, M. | Armani, R. | Bürger, V. | Kenkmann, T. | Georgiev, Z. | Paunova, D. | Nolte, I. | Atanasiu, B. | Marian, C. | Lapillonne, B. | Sebi, C. | Zahradník, P. | Karasek, J.
Year of publication: 11 / 2014

The objective of the ENTRANZE (Policies to Enforce the Transition to nearly Zero-Energy Buildings in the EU-28) project was to actively support policy making by providing the required data, analysis and guidelines to achieve the fast and…

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Devising renewable heat policy: Overview of support options

authors: Connor, P. | Bürger, V. | Beurskens, L. | Ericsson, K. | Egger, C.
Year of publication: 08 / 2013

Renewable energy sources of heat offer the substantial economic, environmental and social benefits associated with renewable electricity but policy to support their expansion is considerably less advanced. The potential for applying…

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Analysis of harmonisation options for renewable heating support policies in the European Union

authors: Steinbach, J. | Ragwitz, M. | Bürger, V. | Becker, L. | Kranzl, L. | Hummel, M. | Müller, A.
Year of publication: 08 / 2013

Best practice policy design and harmonisation of support schemes for electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) within the European Union have been discussed controversially for years. In contrast, policies for improving renewable…

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The assessment of the regulatory and support framework for domestic buildings in Germany from the perspective of long-term climate protection targets

author: Bürger, V.
Year of publication: 08 / 2013

In order to limit global warming to 2 °C, industrialised countries like Germany are obliged to de-carbonise their energy systems extensively by the middle of the century. The building sector – particularly the building stock – plays a…

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State Budget Independent, Market-Based Instruments to Finance Renewable Heat Strategies

authors: Steinbach, J. | Seefeld, F. | Brandt, E. | Bürger, V. | Jacobshagen, U. | Kachel, M. | Nast, M. | Ragwitz, M.
Year of publication: 02 / 2013

At present, expanding the use of renewable energy sources for heating (RES-H) relies predominantly on publicly funded support instruments. As these are subject to subsidy cuts and suspensions, these instruments do not provide long-term…

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