A list of publications by Oeko-Institut which are available online can be found here. Subscribe to Oeko-Institut's latest publications as RSS feed.

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Banning boilers: An analysis of existing regulations to phase out fossil fuel heating in the EU

authors: Braungardt, S. | Tezak, B. | Rosenow, J. | Bürger, V.
Year of publication: 09 / 2023

In view of the current geopolitical situation, the EU and its Member States are accelerating efforts to reduce their dependency on fossil fuel imports, while simultaneously tackling the climate crisis. With heating in buildings…

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Conceptual considerations on a legal regulation for the nationwide introduction of municipal heat planning

Summary report

authors: Köhler, B. | Bürger, V. | Ortner, S.
Year of publication: 02 / 2023

The heat transition can only succeed if many millions of individual investment decisions by homeowners and businesses are coordinated in such a way that a target-compliant heating system is created. Municipal heating planning is the key…

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Policy frameworks for district heating: A comprehensive overview and analysis of regulations and support measures across Europe

authors: Billerbeck, A. | Breitschopf, B. | Winkler, J. | Bürger, V. | Köhler, B. | Bacquet, A. | Popovski, E. | Fallahnejad, M. | Kranzl, L. | Ragwitz, M.
Year of publication: 12 / 2022

This paper presents an overview of policy frameworks for district heating (DH) in Europe. We develop a classification for policy aspects addressing DH, comprising regulation of ownership, prices, metering, consumer grid connection, third…

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Breakthrough for heat pumps – Practical options for an efficient heat transition in existing buildings

Executive Summary - Study commissioned by Agora Energiewende

authors: Bürger, V. | Braungardt, S. | Miara, M.
Year of publication: 10 / 2022

For the building sector to become climate-neutral, a heat transition is needed. The heat transition comprises three key areas of action: Renovating existing buildings to make them more energy-efficient, phasing out oil and gas boilers,…

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Impact of a ban of fossil heating technologies on NECPS and national energy dependency

authors: Braungardt, S. | Bürger, V. | Stein, V.
Year of publication: 07 / 2022

This report investigates the potential impact of an EU ban on sales of fossil boilers on achievement of existing targets for heating decarbonisation and energy dependency of the individual Member States.

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Renewable space heating under the revised Renewable Energy Directive

ENER/C1/2018-494 : final report

authors: Kranzl, L. | Fallahnejad, M. | Büchele, R. | Müller, A. | Hummel, M. | Fleiter, T. | Mandel, T. | Bagheri, M. | Deac, G. | Bernath, C. | Miosga, J. | Kiefer, C. | Fragoso, J. | Braungardt, S. | Bürger, V. | Spasova, D. | Viegand, J. | Naeraa, R. | Forthuber, S.
Year of publication: 06 / 2022

Space and water heating accounts for almost one third of the European final energy consumption. Thus, the sector needs special attention in the decarbonisation process. This study aims to provide a better information basis for policy…

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District heating and cooling in the European Union

Overview of markets and regulatory frameworks under the revised Renewable Energy Directive

authors: Bacquet, A. | Galindo Fernández, M. | Oger, A. | Themessl, N. | Fallahnejad, M. | Popovski, E. | Steinbach, J. | Bürger, V. | Köhler, B. | Braungardt, S. | Billerbeck, A. | Breitschopf, B. | Winkler, J.
Year of publication: 06 / 2022

This study contributes to an enhanced knowledge of European District Heating and Cooling (DHC) markets, needed to develop policies, initiatives and projects contributing to achieving the decarbonization targets set by the European Green…

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The role of biomass in the decarbonisation of the heating sector

Study on behalf of the European Climate Foundation

Year of publication: 05 / 2022

Renewable heating is currently dominated by biomass, accounting for around 80 % of the renewable energy used for heating1. Within the heating sector, biomass is mainly used in the form of solid biomass: in 2019, solid biomass made up for…

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Carbon Pricing and Complementary Policies - Consistency of the Policy Mix for Decarbonizing Buildings in Germany

Year of publication: 11 / 2021

While it is widely acknowledged that carbon pricing plays an important role in driving the transition towards a low-carbon energy system, its interaction with complementary instruments is discussed controversially. The analysis of…

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Phase-out regulations for fossil fuel boilers at EU and national level

authors: Braungardt, S. | Keimeyer, F. | Bürger, V. | Tezak, B. | Klinski, S.
Year of publication: 10 / 2021

Systemic challenges of Germany's heat transition – a measure and policy roadmap for a climate neutral building stock

eceee 2021 Summer Study proceedings - Panel: 7. Policies for a green recovery in the buildings sector

authors: Köhler, B. | Bürger, V. | Mayer, R. | Engelmann, P. | Sterchele, P. | Heilig, J. | Berneiser, J. | Sandrock, M. | Braungardt, S. | Hesse, T.
Year of publication: 10 / 2021

To reduce Germany's total GHG emissions by 95 % by 2050, the building sector must be completely decarbonised. Due to the inertia of the sector, it is necessary to significantly accelerate the renovation of buildings and the…

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Are economic principles a driver or a barrier for energy efficiency and climate policy?

eceee 2021 Summer Study proceedings - Panel: 2. Policy innovations to ensure, scale and sustain action

authors: Braungardt, S. | Schumacher, K. | Wolff, F. | Keimeyer, F. | Aydemir, A. | Quack, D. | Bürger, V. | Lünenbürger, B.
Year of publication: 10 / 2021

Economic principles are at the heart of key policies addressing or affecting energy efficiency. Minimum energy performance standards are typically based on an economic efficiency principle, where the ambition of the minimum requirements…

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Technical assistance for assessing options to establish an EU-wide green label with a view to promote the use of renewable energy coming from new installations

Final report under framework contract MOVE/ENER/SRD/498-2016 Lot 3

authors: Korteweg, L. | Stojanovic, T. | Schmidt, P. | Rademaekers, K. | Altmann, M. | Bürger, V. | Zerta, M. | Gleiter, T. | Wingenbach, M. | Dieroff, J. | Hennenberg, K. | Seebach, D. | Timpe, C. | Hermann, A. | Yearwood, J. | Smit, T.
Year of publication: 06 / 2021

This report defines and assesses options to establish an EU-wide green label with a view to promote the use of renewable energy coming from new installations as required by Art. 19 (13) of the Renewable Energy Directive recast (EU)…

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Agenda Heat transition 2021

Executive Summary - Study commissioned by Stiftung Klimaneutralität and Agora Energiewende

authors: Bürger, V. | Braungardt, S. | Maaß, C. | Sandrock, M. | Möhring, P.
Year of publication: 06 / 2021

The core of the report is the elaboration of a set of policy instruments aimed at achieving the climate protection targets of the building sector. The inertia characterizing the sector requires that the necessary developments, such as…

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Concepts for the enforcement of climate protection laws in the building sector including third parties

authors: Klinski, S. | Keimeyer, F. | Hesse, T. | Bürger, V. | Oschatz, B.
Year of publication: 03 / 2020

The research project contributes to the most effective implementation of the German Energy Saving Ordinance and Renewable Energies Heat Act by the German federal states – especially in light of the planned merger of the existing…

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The proposed national emissions trading system in Germany

Discussion of implications for the building sector

authors: Braungardt, S. | Bürger, V. | Hartwig, J.
Year of publication: 02 / 2020

The paper analysed existing ETSs covering the buildings sector and draws conclusions for the proposed national ETS in Germany.

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Impact Assessment on the Environmental, Social and Economic Effects of the 2030 Sectoral Targets in the Federal Government’s Climate Action Plan 2050


authors: Repenning, J. | Schumacher, K. | Bergmann, T. | Blanck, R. | Böttcher, H. | Bürger, V. | Cludius, J. | Cook, V. | Emele, L. | Jörß, W. | Hennenberg, K. | Hermann, H. | Loreck, C. | Ludig, S. | Matthes, F. | Nissen, C. | Scheffler, M. | Wiegmann, K. | Zell-Ziegler, C. | Fleiter, T. | Fries, B. | Sievers, L. | Pfaff, M. | Thamling, N. | Rau, D. | Hartwig, J. | Welter, S. | Lösch, O. | Wirz, A.
Year of publication: 11 / 2019

The analyses highlighted three main issues:

  • The targets set for the various sectors can be achieved by means of a range of different strategies.
  • From a macroeconomic perspective, all implementation strategies covered by the study are…

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Third party access to district heating systems - Challenges for the practical implementation

authors: Bürger, V. | Steinbach, J. | Kranzl, L. | Müller, A.
Year of publication: 09 / 2019

District heating (DH) can become a key infrastructure for achieving climate targets in the heating sector. In order to support the uptake of renewables in the DH sector, the European Commission proposed to open DH infrastructures to…

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Evaluating the renewable heating and efficiency obligation for existing buildings – insights into the mechanisms of mandatory building requirements

authors: Pehnt, M. | Weiß, U. | Fritz, S. | Jessing, D. | Bürger, V. | Kenkmann, T. | Lambrecht, K. | Steinbach, J.
Year of publication: 07 / 2019

Germany’s third largest state, Baden Württemberg, was the first to mandate the installation of renewable heating technologies in 2008. Owners of a heating system need to employ a minimum share of renewable energy of 15% of the heat…

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How to include cooling in the EU Renewable Energy Directive? Strategies and policy implications

authors: Braungardt, S. | Bürger, V. | Zieger, J. | Bosselaar, L.
Year of publication: 03 / 2019

The EU Renewable Energy Directive (RES-Directive) establishes a policy framework for the promotion of renewable energy in the EU. Under the framework of the RES-Directive, EU Member States have adopted national renewable energy action…

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