A list of publications by Oeko-Institut which are available online can be found here. Subscribe to Oeko-Institut's latest publications as RSS feed.

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The Social Climate Fund – Opportunities and Challenges for the buildings sector

authors: Braungardt, S. | Schumacher, K. | Ritter, D. | Hünecke, K. | Philipps, Z.
Year of publication: 06 / 2022

The objective of this study is to analyse the Social Climate Fund (SCF) proposal with respect to the following questions Is the SCF designed to fulfill this promise? Is the budget allocated in a solidary way across Member States…

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Are economic principles a driver or a barrier for energy efficiency and climate policy?

eceee 2021 Summer Study proceedings - Panel: 2. Policy innovations to ensure, scale and sustain action

authors: Braungardt, S. | Schumacher, K. | Wolff, F. | Keimeyer, F. | Aydemir, A. | Quack, D. | Bürger, V. | Lünenbürger, B.
Year of publication: 10 / 2021

Economic principles are at the heart of key policies addressing or affecting energy efficiency. Minimum energy performance standards are typically based on an economic efficiency principle, where the ambition of the minimum requirements…

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Case-Study: Energy and Climate Funds

Year of publication: 07 / 2021

This case study is part of a series of six studies which show good practice examples for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the sectors covered under the Effort Sharing Legislation. It has been developed on behalf of the European…

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Case-Study: CO2 Tax in Switzerland

Year of publication: 07 / 2021

This case study is part of a series of six studies which show good practice examples for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the sectors covered under the Effort Sharing Legislation. It has been developed on behalf of the European…

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Ecological Steering with Value-Added Tax and Taxes on Consumption

FFU-Report 02-2021

authors: Postpischil, R. | Jacob, K. | Bär, H. | Siemons, A. | Keimeyer, F. | Schumacher, K.
Year of publication: 06 / 2021

The focus in this policy paper is on environment-related taxes that address the level of consumption. Various arguments are made in favor of the introduction of such consumption-based taxes.

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Towards a More Realistic Cost–Benefit Analysis

Attempting to Integrate Transaction Costs and Energy Efficiency Services

authors: Adisorn, T. | Tholen, L. | Thema, J. | Lütkehaus, H. | Braungardt, S. | Hünecke, K. | Schumacher, K.
Year of publication: 12 / 2020

In order to calculate the financial return of energy efficiency measures, a cost–benefit analysis (CBA) is a proven tool for investors. Generally, however, most CBAs for investors have a narrow focus, which is — simply speaking — on…

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Guidance document for ex-post evaluation of climate policies in Effort Sharing sectors

authors: Renders, N. | Dauwe, T. | Pasquel Garcia, T. | Förster, H. | Gores, S. | Schumacher, K. | Noka, V. | de Boer, F. | Forster, D. | Morgan-Price, S.
Year of publication: 09 / 2020

This  guidance provides  support  to  European  Member States  to further  enhance  systematic  ex-post evaluation of Effort Sharing related policies. The Effort Sharing legislation establishes binding annual greenhouse  gas  emission …

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Ex-post investigation of cost pass-through in the EU ETS - an analysis for six industry sectors

authors: Cludius, J. | de Bruyn, S. | Schumacher, K. | Vergeer, R.
Year of publication: 09 / 2020

In the discussion on the potential risk of carbon leakage related to the EU ETS and the effect of safeguard measures, the scope for passing through carbon costs into final product prices is considered a key issue. This study investigates…

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Municipalities in focus: Evaluating the Local Authorities Guideline (LAG) within the National Climate Initiative (NCI) of Germany: challenges and findings

authors: Kenkmann, T. | Schumacher, K. | Eisenmann, L. | Muckenfuss, L. | Schmolck, B. | Zieger, J.
Year of publication: 06 / 2020

Germany has approximately 11,000 municipalities which can make a significant contribution towards achieving national climate targets. The Local Authorities Guideline (LAG) of the German National Climate Initiative (NCI) has been…

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Impact Assessment on the Environmental, Social and Economic Effects of the 2030 Sectoral Targets in the Federal Government’s Climate Action Plan 2050


authors: Repenning, J. | Schumacher, K. | Bergmann, T. | Blanck, R. | Böttcher, H. | Bürger, V. | Cludius, J. | Cook, V. | Emele, L. | Jörß, W. | Hennenberg, K. | Hermann, H. | Loreck, C. | Ludig, S. | Matthes, F. | Nissen, C. | Scheffler, M. | Wiegmann, K. | Zell-Ziegler, C. | Fleiter, T. | Fries, B. | Sievers, L. | Pfaff, M. | Thamling, N. | Rau, D. | Hartwig, J. | Welter, S. | Lösch, O. | Wirz, A.
Year of publication: 11 / 2019

The analyses highlighted three main issues:

  • The targets set for the various sectors can be achieved by means of a range of different strategies.
  • From a macroeconomic perspective, all implementation strategies covered by the study are…

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Cost-efficiency of the EU Emissions Trading System: An Evaluation of the Second Trading Period

authors: Cludius, J. | Duscha, V. | Friedrichsen, N. | Schumacher, K.
Year of publication: 08 / 2019

Cap and trade systems are considered to be one of the most cost-efficient options to achieve emission reduction targets. This paper extends the literature on the evaluation of emissions trading systems (ETS) by providing insights into…

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Sectoral targets to address competitiveness – a CGE analysis with focus on the global steel sector

Climate Change Economics Vol. 10, No. 1

authors: Duscha, V. | Peterson, E. | Schleich, J. | Schumacher, K.
Year of publication: 02 / 2019

In the wake of the Paris Climate Agreement, countries may employ sectoral approaches. These allow for efficiency gains while at the same time addressing the concerns of competitiveness and carbon leakage. Applying a multi-country,…

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Instruments to achieve reductions in energy consumption through sufficiency: Financial impacts for households and distributional considerations

authors: Cludius, J. | Fischer, C. | Kenkmann, T. | Schumacher, K. | Fries, T. | Brischke, L.
Year of publication: 09 / 2018

Behave 2018: F5. Policy implementation and evaluation II

Results from a current project for the Federal Environment Agency (FKZ 37EV 16 124 0)

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Alleviating Energy Poverty in Germany

Best-Practice from across the EU

authors: Noka, V. | Cludius, J. | Schumacher, K. | Hünecke, K.
Year of publication: 06 / 2018

Presentation by Viktoria Noka, IEPPEC 2018, Vienna, 25th June.

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Policies and measures to alleviate energy poverty in Germany - learning from good practices in other European countries

Oeko-Institut Working Paper 4/2018

authors: Cludius, J. | Hünecke, K. | Noka, V. | Schumacher, K. | Förster, H. | Kunert, D. | Fries, T.
Year of publication: 06 / 2018

The inability to heat or cool your home. Difficulty keeping the light on and appliances running. Restrictions in energy consumption. Worrying about energy bills. Potential Debt. This is how we can broadly understand energy poverty. It is…

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Impacts of the Allocation Mechanism Under the Third Phase of the European Emission Trading Scheme

authors: Eichhammer, W. | Friedrichsen, N. | Healy, S. | Schumacher, K.
Year of publication: 06 / 2018

This paper focuses on the following two key research questions in the context of the change in allocation rules in the move from Phase I/II (2005–2012) to Phase III (2013–2020) of the European Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS): First, how…

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Analysis of Carbon Leakage under Phase III of the EU Emissions Trading System: Trading Patterns in the Cement and Aluminium Sectors

authors: Healy, S. | Schumacher, K. | Eichhammer, W.
Year of publication: 05 / 2018

This paper contributes to the existing literature on carbon leakage by using a range of different publically available datasets in order to develop a systematic approach for identifying whether products are potentially at risk of carbon…

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Instruments to increase climate policy ambition before 2020 - economic and political implications in selected industry and emerging countries

Climate Change | 29/2016

authors: Healy, S. | Schumacher, K. | Day, T. | Höhne, N. | Wouters, K. | Fekete, H. | van den Brink, L. | Duscha, V.
Year of publication: 10 / 2016

Currently there exists a gap between the emissions projected in the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) submitted by countries to the UNFCCC and the emissions that are consistent with limiting global warming to below…

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Climate Protection Scenario 2050

Summary of second final report

authors: Repenning, J. | Emele, L. | Blanck, R. | Dehoust, G. | Förster, H. | Harthan, R. | Hennenberg, K. | Hermann, H. | Jörß, W. | Ludig, S. | Loreck, C. | Scheffler, M. | Schumacher, K. | Wiegmann, K. | Zell-Ziegler, C. | Cook, V. | Braungardt, S. | Eichhammer, W. | Elsland, R. | Fleiter, T. | Hartwig, J. | Kockat, J. | Pfluger, B. | Schade, W. | Schlomann, B. | Sensfuß, F. | Ziesing, H.
Year of publication: 07 / 2016

The results of the first round of modelling were published in August 2014. The results of the second round of modelling are now available and are provided in this report. Three scenarios were created for the time frame up to 2050. The…

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Mitigation Commitments and Fair Effort Sharing in a New Comprehensive Climate Agreement Starting 2020

authors: Ancygier, A. | Cantzler, J. | Fekete, H. | Hagemann, M. | Höhne, N. | Kandy, D. | Kästner, A. | Kersting, J. | Köhne, A. | Lindberg, M. | Mersmann, F. | Obergassel, W. | Siemons, A. | Schumacher, K. | Wang-Helmreich, H. | Wehnert, T.
Year of publication: 11 / 2015

In 2015, all countries are requested to submit their intended mitigation contributions (INDCs) for the new climate agreement which is to be agreed in December 2015. This report analyses the INDCs of 10 selected countries with regard to…

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