Publications

A list of publications by Oeko-Institut which are available online can be found here. Subscribe to Oeko-Institut's latest publications as RSS feed.

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E-fuels versus DACCS

Total costs of electro-fuels and direct air captureand carbon storage while taking into account directandupstream emissions and environmental risks

Year of publication: 08 / 2021

Study on behalf of Transport & Environment (T&E)

For defossilizing European aviation,synthetic fuels or electro fuels (e-fuels) might play a pivotal role in the longterm.The UK’s Committee on Climate Change, however, suggests that…

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Integration of maritime transport in the EU Emissions Trading System

authors: Wissner, N. | Cames, M. | Defour, S. | Abbasov, F. | Armstrong, J.
Year of publication: 07 / 2021

Maritime transport contributes 2-3% to global greenhouse gas emissions. It is, nevertheless, the only sector which is not yet subject to greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets and policies in the European Union (EU). It is imperative…

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Ammonia as a marine fuel

Risks and perspectives

authors: Cames, M. | Wissner, N. | Sutter, J.
Year of publication: 06 / 2021

The decarbonization of the shipping sectorultimatelyrequiresthe switch to alternative post-fossil fuels. Ammonia has recently received increasing attention as a potential marine fuelthat could drive thisdecarbonization.In the context of…

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Methodology and criteria for assessing multilateral initiatives to close the global 2030 climate ambition and action gap

Background Paper

authors: Böttcher, H. | Cames, M.
Year of publication: 04 / 2021

Staying within the limit of the Paris Agreement of 1.5 °C global warming requires closing the global 2030 ambition and action gap arising from insufficient current policies and contributions. This background paper documents the…

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Voluntary offsetting: credits and allowances

Report

authors: Doda, B. | La Hoz Theuer, S. | Cames, M. | Healy, S. | Schneider, L.
Year of publication: 01 / 2021

To date, the supply of units for the voluntary carbon market has been almost exclusively in the form of credits generated by climate protection projects elsewhere. This report analyses the merits and challenges of another possible source…

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Options for multilateral initiatives to close the global 2030 climate ambition and action gap - Policy field synthetic e-fuels

authors: Cames, M. | Böttcher, H. | Fuentes Hutfilter, U. | Wilson, R.
Year of publication: 01 / 2021

Achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement requires increased global climate action, especially towards the production and use of synthetic e-fuels. This paper focuses on aviation and maritime transport and the role of green hydrogen for…

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Analysis and assessment of the design of an offsetting system for international aviation

authors: Schneider, L. | Cames, M. | Healy, S. | Keimeyer, F. | Schütte, S. | Fearnehough, H. | Warnecke, C. | Tewari, R. | Broekhoff, D. | La Hoz Theuer, S.
Year of publication: 11 / 2019

This discussion paper assesses how robust accounting could be implemented under the Paris Agreement in order to avoid double counting between nationally determined contributions (NDCs) and the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for…

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Outside in? Using international carbon markets for mitigation not covered by nationally determined contributions (NDCs) under the Paris Agreement

authors: Schneider, L. | La Hoz Theuer, S. | Howard, A. | Kizzier, K. | Cames, M.
Year of publication: 10 / 2019

The Paris Agreement establishes provisions for using international carbon market mechanisms to achieve nationally determined contribution (NDCs). In international negotiations on the rules governing the Agreement, an important question…

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EU Environment and Climate Change Policies

State of play, current and future challenges

Year of publication: 09 / 2019

This study reviews the state of play of on environmental and climate legislation in the EU and pinpoints key challenges for the next five years. Part 1 of this study summarizes the status of EU legislation, major EU targets and…

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Summary of the 2019 Aviation Decarbonization Forum

authors: Cames, M. | et al.
Year of publication: 02 / 2019

On February 12, 2019, at the Hotel AC Montreal, ICSA hosted the Aviation Decarbonization Forum - an exclusive event for ICAO Council members, permanent representatives, and their advisers to receive the most comprehensive, up-to-date…

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IMO’s challenges on the route to decarbonising international shipping Key Issues at Stake at the 72nd Session of the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC 72)

authors: Graichen, J. | Cames, M. | Cook, V.
Year of publication: 03 / 2018

Despite efficiency improvements, CO2 emissions from international shipping are projected to be two to five times higher in 2050 than in 1990. At the Paris climate conference, countries agreed to limit climate change to well below 2°C.…

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Key Issues at Stake at the 71st Session of the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC 71)

authors: Graichen, J. | Cook, V. | Cames, M.
Year of publication: 06 / 2017

Despite efficiency improvements, CO2 emissions from international shipping are projected to be two to five times higher in 2050 than in 1990. At the Paris climate conference, countries agreed to limit climate change to well below 2°C.…

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Vulnerability of CDM Projects for Discontinuation of Mitigation Activities

Assessment of Project Vulnerability and Options to Support Continued Mitigation

authors: Warnecke, C. | Day, T. | Schneider, L. | Cames, M. | Healy, S. | Harthan, R. | Tewari, R. | Höhne, N.
Year of publication: 05 / 2017

This study forms part of a broader project, supported by the German Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt, UBA), with the primary objective to analyse the current situation and development of the international carbon markets.

This report…

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Support to an impact assessment of an EU ETS review and possible proposal

Final report - Study

authors: Cames, M. | Graichen, J. | Gibson, G. | Horton, G. | Jones, L. | Kirsch, F. | Biedka, M. | Graichen, V.
Year of publication: 12 / 2016

This is the Final Report on a study to support an impact assessment of options for the EU ETS for Aviation following the completion of the Stop-the-Clock derogation at the end of 2016. The report provides a brief overview of the problem…

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International market mechanisms after Paris

Discussion Paper

authors: Cames, M. | Healy, S. | Tänzler, D. | Li, L. | Melnikova, J. | Warnecke, C. | Kurdziel, M.
Year of publication: 11 / 2016

Our analysis suggests that the purpose of international carbon markets has changed. While increasing economic efficiency was more prominent during the first development phase of international carbon markets, raising mitigation ambition…

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Market mechanisms under the Paris Climate Protection Agreement

authors: Cames, M. | Graichen, J. | Healy, S. | et al.
Year of publication: 11 / 2016

In preparation for the next international climate change conference in Marrakech (07 to 18/11/2016) three discussion papers were developed on behalf of the German Environment Agency. These deal with the key issues for discussion and…

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How additional is the Clean Development Mechanism?

Analysis of the application of current tools and proposed alternatives

authors: Cames, M. | Harthan, R. | Füssler, J. | Lazarus, M. | Lee, C. | Erickson, P. | Spalding-Fecher, R.
Year of publication: 03 / 2016

While this study provides important insights to improve the CDM up to 2020, the approach taken in this study could also be applied more generally both to assess the environmental integrity of other compliance offset mechanisms, as well…

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Cost impacts of ICAO’s Global Market-Based Mechanism

Briefing paper

authors: Cames, M. | van Velzen, A.
Year of publication: 01 / 2016

Introducing a Global Market-Based Mechanism (GMBM) for aviation with a requirement to offset emissions above the 2020 baseline would induce additional costs for purchasing offset units. These costs were estimated with the AERO Modelling…

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Emission Reduction Targets for International Aviation and Shipping

Year of publication: 11 / 2015

This study commissioned by the European Parliament provides an overview of potential CO2 mitigation targets for international aviation and maritime transport and analyses which targets would be compatible with the global long-term goal…

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Availability of offsets for a global market-based mechanism for international aviation

Briefing paper

author: Cames, M.
Year of publication: 10 / 2015

At its 37th Assembly, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) agreed a global aspirational goal of Carbon Neutral Growth by 2020 (CNG 2020). In 2013, ICAO established working groups for developing a Global Market-Based…

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