A list of publications by Oeko-Institut which are available online can be found here. Subscribe to Oeko-Institut's latest publications as RSS feed.

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Banning boilers: An analysis of existing regulations to phase out fossil fuel heating in the EU

authors: Braungardt, S. | Tezak, B. | Rosenow, J. | Bürger, V.
Year of publication: 09 / 2023

In view of the current geopolitical situation, the EU and its Member States are accelerating efforts to reduce their dependency on fossil fuel imports, while simultaneously tackling the climate crisis. With heating in buildings…

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Breakthrough for heat pumps – Practical options for an efficient heat transition in existing buildings

Executive Summary - Study commissioned by Agora Energiewende

authors: Bürger, V. | Braungardt, S. | Miara, M.
Year of publication: 10 / 2022

For the building sector to become climate-neutral, a heat transition is needed. The heat transition comprises three key areas of action: Renovating existing buildings to make them more energy-efficient, phasing out oil and gas boilers,…

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Impact of a ban of fossil heating technologies on NECPS and national energy dependency

authors: Braungardt, S. | Bürger, V. | Stein, V.
Year of publication: 07 / 2022

This report investigates the potential impact of an EU ban on sales of fossil boilers on achievement of existing targets for heating decarbonisation and energy dependency of the individual Member States.

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The EU policy framework for energy communities

authors: Spasova, D. | Braungardt, S.
Year of publication: 07 / 2022

European Union (EU) legislation introduces two definitions of energy communities—“renewable energy communities” (Renewable Energy Directive) and “citizen energy communities” (Electricity Directive). Energy communities' importance for the…

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Renewable space heating under the revised Renewable Energy Directive

ENER/C1/2018-494 : final report

authors: Kranzl, L. | Fallahnejad, M. | Büchele, R. | Müller, A. | Hummel, M. | Fleiter, T. | Mandel, T. | Bagheri, M. | Deac, G. | Bernath, C. | Miosga, J. | Kiefer, C. | Fragoso, J. | Braungardt, S. | Bürger, V. | Spasova, D. | Viegand, J. | Naeraa, R. | Forthuber, S.
Year of publication: 06 / 2022

Space and water heating accounts for almost one third of the European final energy consumption. Thus, the sector needs special attention in the decarbonisation process. This study aims to provide a better information basis for policy…

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District heating and cooling in the European Union

Overview of markets and regulatory frameworks under the revised Renewable Energy Directive

authors: Bacquet, A. | Galindo Fernández, M. | Oger, A. | Themessl, N. | Fallahnejad, M. | Popovski, E. | Steinbach, J. | Bürger, V. | Köhler, B. | Braungardt, S. | Billerbeck, A. | Breitschopf, B. | Winkler, J.
Year of publication: 06 / 2022

This study contributes to an enhanced knowledge of European District Heating and Cooling (DHC) markets, needed to develop policies, initiatives and projects contributing to achieving the decarbonization targets set by the European Green…

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Policy support for heating and cooling decarbonisation


authors: Gerard, F. | Smit, T. | Rademaekers, K. | Braungardt, S. | Monejar Montagud, . | Guevara Opinska, L.
Year of publication: 06 / 2022

The heating and cooling (H&C) sector is responsible for a central part of the EU’s energy demand, representing roughly half of the final energy consumption. As such, the decarbonisation of the H&C sector is crucial for a successful…

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The Social Climate Fund – Opportunities and Challenges for the buildings sector

authors: Braungardt, S. | Schumacher, K. | Ritter, D. | Hünecke, K. | Philipps, Z.
Year of publication: 06 / 2022

The objective of this study is to analyse the Social Climate Fund (SCF) proposal with respect to the following questions Is the SCF designed to fulfill this promise? Is the budget allocated in a solidary way across Member States…

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The role of biomass in the decarbonisation of the heating sector

Study on behalf of the European Climate Foundation

Year of publication: 05 / 2022

Renewable heating is currently dominated by biomass, accounting for around 80 % of the renewable energy used for heating1. Within the heating sector, biomass is mainly used in the form of solid biomass: in 2019, solid biomass made up for…

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Carbon Pricing and Complementary Policies - Consistency of the Policy Mix for Decarbonizing Buildings in Germany

Year of publication: 11 / 2021

While it is widely acknowledged that carbon pricing plays an important role in driving the transition towards a low-carbon energy system, its interaction with complementary instruments is discussed controversially. The analysis of…

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Phase-out regulations for fossil fuel boilers at EU and national level

authors: Braungardt, S. | Keimeyer, F. | Bürger, V. | Tezak, B. | Klinski, S.
Year of publication: 10 / 2021

Systemic challenges of Germany's heat transition – a measure and policy roadmap for a climate neutral building stock

eceee 2021 Summer Study proceedings - Panel: 7. Policies for a green recovery in the buildings sector

authors: Köhler, B. | Bürger, V. | Mayer, R. | Engelmann, P. | Sterchele, P. | Heilig, J. | Berneiser, J. | Sandrock, M. | Braungardt, S. | Hesse, T.
Year of publication: 10 / 2021

To reduce Germany's total GHG emissions by 95 % by 2050, the building sector must be completely decarbonised. Due to the inertia of the sector, it is necessary to significantly accelerate the renovation of buildings and the…

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Are economic principles a driver or a barrier for energy efficiency and climate policy?

eceee 2021 Summer Study proceedings - Panel: 2. Policy innovations to ensure, scale and sustain action

authors: Braungardt, S. | Schumacher, K. | Wolff, F. | Keimeyer, F. | Aydemir, A. | Quack, D. | Bürger, V. | Lünenbürger, B.
Year of publication: 10 / 2021

Economic principles are at the heart of key policies addressing or affecting energy efficiency. Minimum energy performance standards are typically based on an economic efficiency principle, where the ambition of the minimum requirements…

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Building a Common Support Framework in Differing Realities - Conditions for Renewable Energy Communities in Germany and Bulgaria

authors: Spasova, D. | Braungardt, S.
Year of publication: 08 / 2021

The revised EU Renewable Energy Directive first introduced renewable energy communities into the EU policy framework and requires Member States to implement a support framework for them. Given the broad scientific evidence showing the…

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Agenda Heat transition 2021

Executive Summary - Study commissioned by Stiftung Klimaneutralität and Agora Energiewende

authors: Bürger, V. | Braungardt, S. | Maaß, C. | Sandrock, M. | Möhring, P.
Year of publication: 06 / 2021

The core of the report is the elaboration of a set of policy instruments aimed at achieving the climate protection targets of the building sector. The inertia characterizing the sector requires that the necessary developments, such as…

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The role of Artificial Intelligence in the European Green Deal

authors: Gailhofer, P. | Herold, A. | Schemmel, J. | Scherf, C. | Urrutia, C. | Köhler, A. | Braungardt, S.
Year of publication: 05 / 2021

Artificial Intelligence (AI) can be deployed for a wide range of applications to promote the goals of the European Green Deal. However, adverse environmental impacts of AI could jeopardise the attainment of these goals. The report…

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Towards a More Realistic Cost–Benefit Analysis

Attempting to Integrate Transaction Costs and Energy Efficiency Services

authors: Adisorn, T. | Tholen, L. | Thema, J. | Lütkehaus, H. | Braungardt, S. | Hünecke, K. | Schumacher, K.
Year of publication: 12 / 2020

In order to calculate the financial return of energy efficiency measures, a cost–benefit analysis (CBA) is a proven tool for investors. Generally, however, most CBAs for investors have a narrow focus, which is — simply speaking — on…

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The proposed national emissions trading system in Germany

Discussion of implications for the building sector

authors: Braungardt, S. | Bürger, V. | Hartwig, J.
Year of publication: 02 / 2020

The paper analysed existing ETSs covering the buildings sector and draws conclusions for the proposed national ETS in Germany.

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How to include cooling in the EU Renewable Energy Directive? Strategies and policy implications

authors: Braungardt, S. | Bürger, V. | Zieger, J. | Bosselaar, L.
Year of publication: 03 / 2019

The EU Renewable Energy Directive (RES-Directive) establishes a policy framework for the promotion of renewable energy in the EU. Under the framework of the RES-Directive, EU Member States have adopted national renewable energy action…

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Fossil fuel divestment and climate change: Reviewing contested arguments

authors: Braungardt, S. | van den Bergh, J. | Dunlop, T.
Year of publication: 03 / 2019

The strategy of fossil fuel divestment has attracted considerable attention in recent years, particularly in the press and social media. Spearheaded as a movement based on ethical principles, divestment has been suggested to play a…

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