The representation of energy, energy carriers and fuels in the Open Energy Ontology

  • Mirjam Stappel
  • Lukas Emele
    Senior Researcher / Head of Energy Policy & Scenarios subdivision Energy & Climate
  • Ludwig Hülk
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The Open Energy Ontology (OEO) is a BFO-based ontology for the domain of energy system analysis. Core of this domain is the concept of energy. Since the concept of energy is ambiguous and has not (yet) been introduced into BFO, we describe why the OEO classifies energy as a quality. We present how energy is differentiated from energy carriers, fuels and other related concepts. The process of energy conversion makes it possible to depict many different types of its generation and usage. Further, we describe the concept of origin of matter and energy. In this article, we define the core concepts of the OEO according to the BFO. We thus demonstrate how the OEO enables the consistent use of core concepts throughout the energy system analysis domain.

Published in: Proceedings of the Joint Ontology Workshops 2022, Episode VIII: The Svear Sommar of Ontology, Jönköping, Sweden, August 15-19, 2022,

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