State-Budget-Independent Support Instruments for Promoting Energy Refurbishment Measures in the German Buildings Sector

This article describes and evaluates a number of different financial support instruments for the energy refurbishment of the building stock based on the example of Germany. The key focus is on policy instruments which are not counter-financed by public budgets or where, by other means, investment and planning security for investors is assured. Through such instruments the typical disadvantages of public budget-financed support programs (e.g. insufficient support funds, frequent changes to support conditions) should be alleviated. Five different policy instruments are examined in terms of their legal viability and evaluated according to functionality criteria. The article closes with a recommended time frame for the implementation of an effective set of policy instruments.