A comparative analysis of approaches in Germany, Poland and Romania

Policy brief: Supporting households in the energy price crisis

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Since the second half of 2021, the EU is experiencing a sharp rise in energy prices, mainly caused by an unprecedented increase in the price of natural gas. In 2021, demand for energy increased as the global economy recovered after Covid lockdowns, and production was not able to meet the rising demand. The Russian invasion of Ukraine has since escalated the situation, driving up gas prices and stoking fears of supply shortages. Governments in Germany, Poland and Romania have responded to the energy price crisis with substantial relief packages. In this comparative analysis, we focus on measures intended to support households during the crisis and ask the question: Are the measures efficient, effective, and have a long-lasting impact? Do they reach those most in need? What should be done differently in the future?