Solving the E-Waste Problem (StEP) Green Paper - E-waste Country Study Ethiopia
The generation and management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste) is an increasing concern in many African countries. Attempts to bridge the digital divide as well as rapid economic development continue to boost the market penetration of many types of electricity powered devices. This also leads to rapidly increasing e-waste volumes, which are mostly not yet managed in an environmentally sound manner.
In order to build a strong foundation for the development of Ethiopia’s e-waste management strategy, it was deemed necessary to generate reliable data on e-waste volumes and current management practices and options, as well as to investigate possibilities for improved e-waste management and other relevant aspects.
This study, financed by the Solving the E-waste Problem (StEP) Initiative under a grant of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA), was jointly carried out by the Oeko-Institut e.V. and PAN-Ethiopia. It aims to fill key knowledge gaps and provide a more solid base for further decision making for both, national decision-makers and co-operation projects in this field.
The information contained in this report is derived from existing literature sources and statistics, interviews conducted in Ethiopia, and field assessments in Addis Ababa in August 2012.
Manhart, A.; Amera, T.; Mehari, B. (2013) more informationPDF filedownload (1632 kByte)
Thinking and researching in networks - Annual report of the Oeko-Institut 2012
Guest commentary for Reuters by Dr. Felix Christian Matthes
The emissions trading scheme for greenhouse gases is one of the crucial climate policy instruments in Europe. Eight years after the start of the scheme, it is in deep crisis for different reasons. In a guest commentary for the news agency Reuters Felix Chr. Matthes describes the underlying reasons of the crisis, elements of a strategy to repair the scheme and the consequences of these efforts failing. Matthes, F. (2013) more informationPDF filedownload (123 kByte)
Contribution to the consultation on generation adequacy, capacity mechanisms and the internal market in electricity
The transformation of the German and European energy systems to ones based on renewable energies requires not only new technologies with constantly low costs, but also a change of the power markets. For the integration of renewable energies and to ensure the security of supply for the upcoming transitional phase, the current power market is no longer appropriate. 15 years after liberalization began and with a view to the ambitious targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and expand renewable energies, the electricity market must be significantly changed. However, in the context of the European internal energy market, this new market design has not only a national but also a European dimension. Against the background of the diverse issues and challenges involved, the European Commission carried out a consultation procedure on “Generation Adequacy, Capacity Mechanisms and the Internal Market in Electricity”. Öko-Institut (Institute for Applied Ecology) has provided detailed comments on very diverse issues in this consultation process. This consultation paper addresses issues relating to the necessity for new market elements (“capacity markets”), to the design of such rules and to their integration in the European framework. Matthes, F.; Hermann, H. (2013) more informationPDF filedownload (460 kByte)
Impacts of Germany’s nuclear phase-out on electricity imports and exports
Report commissioned by Greenpeace Germany
Imports of nuclear power to Germany did not increase after the shutdown of eight nuclear power plants in March 2011. This is the conclusion of a report by Oeko-Institut which was commissioned by Greenpeace. Loreck, C.; Hermann, H.; Matthes, F.; Emele, L.; Rausch, L. (2013) more informationPDF filedownload (14283 kByte)
Description and critical environmental evaluation of the REE refining plant LAMP near Kuantan/Malaysia - Report
Radiological and non-radiological environ-mental consequences of the plant’s opera-tion and its wastes
The facility for refining Australian ore concentrate rich in rare earth metals of Lynas Corporation in Malaysia has several deficiencies concerning the operational environmental impacts. The environment is affected by acidic substances as well as from dust particles, which are emitted into the air in substantially larger concentrations than would be state-of-the-art in off-gas treatment in Europe. The storage of radioactive and toxic wastes on site does not prevent leachate from leaving the facility and entering ground and groundwater. For the long-term disposal of wastes under acceptable conditions concerning radiation safety a sustainable concept is still missing. These are the results of a study of Oeko-Institute on behalf of the Malaysian NGO SMSL. Schmidt, G. (2013) more informationPDF filedownload (2813 kByte)
Description and critical environmental evaluation of the REE refining plant LAMP near Kuantan/Malaysia - Summary
Radiological and non-radiological environ-mental consequences of the plant’s opera-tion and its wastes
The facility for refining Australian ore concentrate rich in rare earth metals of Lynas Corporation in Malaysia has several deficiencies concerning the operational environmental impacts. The environment is affected by acidic substances as well as from dust particles, which are emitted into the air in substantially larger concentrations than would be state-of-the-art in off-gas treatment in Europe. The storage of radioactive and toxic wastes on site does not prevent leachate from leaving the facility and entering ground and groundwater. For the long-term disposal of wastes under acceptable conditions concerning radiation safety a sustainable concept is still missing. These are the results of a study of Oeko-Institute on behalf of the Malaysian NGO SMSL. Schmidt, G. (2013) more informationPDF filedownload (116 kByte)
The Development of Climate Negotiations in View of Doha (COP 18)
This report provides an overview of the development of the negotiations within the UNFCCC since COP 17 in Durban. It summarises the key developments in 2012 and provides short overviews for all negotiation areas. The overview also includes a state of play of the Durban Agreement and explains the position of the main Parties and negotiation groups. It is supplemented by short overviews for individual countries and stakeholder groups. Herold, A.; Cames, M.; Cook, V.; Emele, L. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (2034 kByte)
The Cost of Inaction
Auctioning revenues under different climate ambition scenarios for the EU Emissions Trading Scheme
The aim of the study is to show how the analysed scenarios impact the auctioning revenues for the different Member States and the extent to which they affect industrial sectors covered by the EU ETS Directive. Hermann, H.; Graichen, V. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (479 kByte)
Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2012 - Tracking progress towards Kyoto and 2020 targets
This report presents an overview of the progress achieved so far by the EU, its Member States and other EEA member countries towards their respective targets under the Kyoto Protocol and the EU burden-sharing agreement, as well as 2020 targets set at EU level. The assessment is based on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission data in Europe for the period 2008-2011, including recent EEA estimates of proxy 2011 GHG emissions. Herold, A.; Hermann, H.; Graichen, V.; Gores, S.; Döring, U.; Emele, L.; Scheffler, M. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (1 kByte)
Short analysis of the increase of the German EEG surcharge for 2013
On 15 October 2012 the transmission network operators in Germany published the new EEG surcharge for the promotion of renewable energies which household customers will find on their electricity bill in 2013: it amounts to approx. 5.3 ct/kWh. In 2012 the surcharge stood at 3.6 ct/kWh. Oeko-Institut explains the key factors for the increase in a short analysis. Less than half the increase is caused by the additional expansion of renewable energies in 2013.
This analysis is available in both German and English.
Loreck, C.; Matthes, F.; Hermann, H.; Jung, F.; Emele, L. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (287 kByte)
Decomposition analysis of EEG surcharge for promotion of power generation from renewable energies under the German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG)
The influence of very diverse factors on the German EEG surcharge makes it difficult to attribute specific shares of the surcharge to the rules and factors at hand. In the case of a sequential analysis (where the factors are layered on one after the other) the ranking of the influencing factors considered plays a substantial, and sometimes an overriding, role in quantitatively specifying the shares of the different factors. Against this background it is necessary to use a more suitable method to analyse the composition of the German EEG surcharge. For a multi-factorial problem requiring explanation such as this, so-called component or decomposition analysis can be used. Loreck, C.; Matthes, F.; Hermann, H.; Jung, F. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (137 kByte)
Focused capacity markets. A new market design for the transition to a new energy system
A study for the WWF Germany environmental foundation
The focused capacity market constitutes a pragmatic and, compared to the models of a comprehensive capacity market and a strategic reserve discussed up to now, a very advantageous instrument for tackling the current and foreseeable challenges with regard to security of supply.
At the same time a focused capacity market can make a substantial contribution to flanking the transformation of the energy system to one based on renewable energies and maintaining a high intensity of competition in the electricity market while substantially limiting the costs for electricity consumers. Matthes, F.; Schlemmermeier, B.; Diermann, C.; Hermann, H.; v. Hammerstein, C. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (1366 kByte)
Focused capacity markets. A new market design for the transition to a new energy system - Short version
The focused capacity market constitutes a pragmatic and, compared to the models of a comprehensive capacity market and a strategic reserve discussed up to now, a very advantageous instrument for tackling the current and foreseeable challenges with regard to security of supply.
At the same time a focused capacity market can make a substantial contribution to flanking the transformation of the energy system to one based on renewable energies and maintaining a high intensity of competition in the electricity market while substantially limiting the costs for electricity consumers. Matthes, F.; Schlemmermeier, B.; Diermann, C.; Hermann, H.; v. Hammerstein, C. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (79 kByte)
Timely replacement of a notebook under consideration of environmental aspects
The study concludes that the share of the production phase in the total greenhouse gas emissions of a notebook can be significantly reduced by taking measures to extend the useful life-time of a notebook. Therefore, the study recommends that the focus of mandatory product policy for ICT should be expanded to measures related to possibilities of hardware upgrading, modular construction, recycling-friendly design, availability of spare parts, standardisation of components and minimum warranty periods. Prakash, S.; Liu, R.; Schischke, K.; Stobbe, L. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (1702 kByte)
Ex-post quantification of the effects and costs of policies and measures
The study aims to support Member States and the European Commission in assessing ex-post the efficiency and effectiveness of individual policies and measures. As such the study aims to provide guidelines and recommendations to assess the environmental impacts and socio-economic effects of policies and measures. Schumacher, K.; Herold, A.; Koch, M.; Döring, U.; Harthan, R.; Jörß, W.; Pollitt, H.; Grebot, B.; Mardsen, H.; Sobey, M.; Noden, R.; Mistry, R.; Hill, J.; Harmelink, M.; Pulles, T.; Jozwicka, M.; Smokers, R.; Bolech, M.; Coenen, P.; Kuenen, J. (2011) more informationPDF filedownload (1 kByte)
Early Replacement of Notebooks Considering Environmental Impacts
Metastudy Analysis on 2050 Energy Scenarios - Policy Briefing
SEFEP working paper 2012-5
The need for an "Energy Roadmap 2050" triggered a multitude of studies that were conducted between 2009 and 2011, which again contained a multitude of decarbonisation scenarios, which achieve the EU’s long-term emission mitigation target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80% until 2050 (relative to 1990 emissions). The variety of important analysis is difficult to compare and utilize for specific and timely policy decisions. Thus the Smart Energy for Europe Platform (SEFEP) has commissioned a comparative study of relevant energy scenario studies for Europe. The findings of this comparative study are summarized here briefly. Förster, H.; Healy, S.; Loreck, C.; Matthes, F.; Fischedick, M.; Lechtenböhmer, S.; Samadi, S.; Venjakob, J. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (601 kByte)
Price Determinants of the European Carbon Market and Interactions with Energy Markets
This report explores the determinants of short run price movements in the carbon market and their interaction with energy markets, in particular with the electricity market. Focusing on Phase 2 of the EU ETS we conduct econometric time series analysis based on continental EU and UK market data. Our findings suggest that market fundamentals have a dominant effect on the EUA price, but that non-fundamental factors may also play a role. We further found that the electricity price has a significant positive impact on the carbon price in the short run. Schumacher, K.; Cludius, J.; Matthes, F.; Diekmann, J.; Zaklan, A. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (1 kByte)
Contribution of Renewable Cooling to the Renewable Energy Target of the EU
This renewable cooling policy report intends to support the dissemination of renewable cooling technologies. It provides an overview of the situation, technologies and potential for cooling from renewable sources and identifies key areas in which further investigation is required. The report shows that there is a great need for the creation of a political framework supporting the market diffusion of renewable cooling technologies. Kenkmann, T.; Bürger, V. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (838 kByte)
Strengthening the European Union emissons trading scheme and raising climate ambition
Facts, Measures and Implications
The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is a central pillar of EU climate policy and has developed over the years into a model scheme for a number of corresponding emissions trading schemes internationally (e.g. in California, Australia, South Korea and China). Against the background of significantly falling prices for emission allowances, a number of measures are currently being discussed for adapting the EU ETS so that it can also fulfil its intended role in the long term. Oeko-Institut‘s report examines the reasons for the current surplus of emission allowances and analyses different options for reducing this surplus, also with a view to expected price effects on the carbon market. Hermann, H.; Matthes, F. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (733 kByte)
Modelling the Allowance Allocation Method of the EU ETS: Cement
The aim of this paper is to show the implications of different ways of implementing free allocation in a model environment. Especially, the impact of current allocation rules both for incumbents and new entrants in the cement sector in relation to operational and strategic decisions of firms are assessed. Quirion, P.; Schumacher, K.; Healy, S. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (1 kByte)
Analysis of the EU’s Energy Roadmap 2050 scenarios
Information for Policy Makers 2 - SEFEP working paper 2012
This report has been commissioned by the Smart Energy for Europe Platform (SEFEP). Förster, H.; Healy, S.; Loreck, C.; Matthes, F.; Fischedick, M.; Lechtenböhmer, S.; Samadi, S.; Venjakob, J. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (1004 kByte)
Product classification and its implication on competitiveness and carbon leakage: Aluminium Climate Strategies Report
The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the production output, specific emissions and trading patterns of the aluminium sector at the disaggregated product level in order to determine whether certain products require special consideration when designing policies to improve the competitiveness of European firms and to prevent carbon leakage. Healy, S.; Schumacher, K. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (1 kByte)
Product Classification and it`s implication on Competitiveness and Carbon Leakage: Pulp, Paper and Paperboard
The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the production output, specific emissions and trading patterns of the pulp, paper and paperboard sectors at the disaggregated product level in order to determine whether certain products require special consideration when designing policies to improve the competitiveness of European firms and to prevent carbon leakage. Healy, S.; Schumacher, K. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (1 kByte)
Integration of electricity from renewables to the electricity grid and to the electricity market – RES-INTEGRATION
This report provides an assessment of how different countries are reacting to the challenges brought about by the new setting in terms of adaptation of the grid and the market to the rapid increase of RES-E. This assessment is provided in four areas, i.e. an assessment of RES-E integration in the phases of grid connection, operation, development and in the market. Binda Zane, E.; Brückmann, R.; Bauknecht, D.; Jirouš, F.; Piria, R.; Trennepohl, N.; Bracker, J.; Frank, R.; Herling, J. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (3041 kByte)
Recycling critical raw materials from waste electronic equipment
The project`s aims are to produce a life cycle inventory of the occurrence of the critical raw materials in four selected groups of electronic devices – flat screens, LED lights, notebooks and smartphones – and to develop recycling options for the waste equipment to recover the critical raw materials Buchert, M.; Manhart, A.; Bleher, D.; Pingel, D. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (2911 kByte)
Decentralized, Resource-Saving, Efficient: Building Blocks for a Sustainable Energy Supply
During the summer of 2011, the German government decided with the so-called “energy turnaround” to discontinue the use of nuclear power and to shift the provision of energy to renewable energy sources, step by step. Moreover, the decision provides for a massive improvement in the energy efficiency of buildings, machinery and facilities and the expansion of combined heat and power generation. The realization of these objectives is a decisive prerequisite if Germany is to achieve the fast and extensive reduction of its greenhouse gas emissions required from the perspective of global climate protection. Kenkmann, T.; Timpe, C. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (234 kByte)
Study on Land-Sourced Litter (LSL) in the marine environment
Review of sources and literature
The Oeko-Institut was commissioned to study existing literature, focusing its attention on three European seas, i.e. the North Sea, the Baltic Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. All the available studies into land-sourced litter, i.e. litter which gets into the three seas from land, was collected and analysed. In order to develop a scientifically founded basis for taking specific measures to avoid further dumping, this particular factor was to be examined closely. This report has consciously not considered other factors, such as ecological impact, the part that legislation has to play and the significance of education and behaviour. Mehlhart, G.; Blepp, M. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (3702 kByte)
Decarbonisation Scenarios leading to the EU Energy Roadmap 2050
Information for Policy Makers 1 - SEFEP working paper 2012
This paper presents the results of an in‐depth analysis and a comparison of six mitigation scenarios from three important scenario studies released since 2009 by Greenpeace, EURELECTRIC and the European Climate Foundation (ECF) respectively. A decomposition method is applied to show the extent to which technologies and strategies contribute to CO2 emission reductions in the individual scenarios. Förster, H.; Healy, S.; Loreck, C.; Matthes, F.; Fischedick, M.; Samadi, S.; Venjakob, J. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (817 kByte)
Power sector decarbonisation: Metastudy WP 1.2
The present document provides the suggestion for an analytical framework to decompose emission reductions in the power sector based on data retrieved from studies which provide scenarios of power sector decarbonisation. With the given approach and under sufficient data availability it will be possible to reveal the contributions of demand side effects such as changing consumption patterns in traditional and new appliances and increased electricity demand of new appliances and storage inputs. At the same time a changing power generation structure also contributes to emission reductions and can be explicitly considered. Electricity generation from CCS can be considered if data availability if sufficiently documented and the analysis proceeds as laid out in the Appendix. Förster, H.; Healy, S.; Loreck, C.; Matthes, F. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (146 kByte)
Power sector decarbonisation: Metastudy WP 2.2
Quantitative analysis of existing EU-wide studies
The scope of the “Power Sector Decarbonisation: Metastudy” research project is to provide an overview of the relevant energy scenarios in order to help overcome the described difficulties by applying the so-called decomposition methodology. Analysing different scenario studies with this method involves systematically disaggregating their calculated emission reductions into the underlying causal factors (or components). By this decomposition of the CO2 emissions the methodology provides value added in increasing the transparency of modelling exercises within the various scenario studies. Acuner, E.; Arnold, H.; Cludius, J.; Fischedick, M.; Förster, H.; Friege, J.; Healy, S.; Loreck, C.; Matthes, F.; Prantner, M.; Samadi, S.; Venjakob, J. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (938 kByte)
Are electric vehicles the mode of the future? Potentials and environmental impacts
Background paper on electric mobility
Yet many questions concerning the environmental and climate benefits of electric mobility remain to be clarified, as do issues of market potentials and user acceptance. The Oeko-Institut has conducted research into these and other matters: this paper presents the key findings on the private and commercial use of electric vehicles and on resource efficiency. Hacker, F.; Kasten, P.; Loreck, C.; Buchert, M. (2012) more informationPDF filedownload (195 kByte)
Towards a Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment
Making informed choices on products
Since the late 1990s, the Life Cycle Initiative partnership of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) has enhanced the role of life cycle based approaches and thinking in several ways. Two examples are the partnership’s contributions to the Marrakech Process on Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) and inputs for the development of a 10-Year Framework of Programmes on SCP (10YFP). This current publication, Towards a Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment, expands this work by bringing the concept of LCSA methods to the fore. In doing so, it will contribute to the sustainable development discussions of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Summit) in 2012 (‘Rio+20’). The text will also contribute to the UNEP Green Economy Initiative – which strives to build economies that bring improved human well-being, reduce inequalities over the long term and which keep future generations safe from environmental risk and ecological scarcity. Ciroth, A.; Finkbeiner, M.; Hildenbrand, J.; Klöpffer, W.; Mazijn, B.; Prakash, S.; Sonnemann, G.; Traverso, M.; Ugaya, C.; Valdivia, S.; Vickery-Niederman, G. (2011) more informationPDF filedownload (1 kByte)
E-Waste Africa Project
The results and findings presented in this publication have been generated in the framework of the Basel Convention E-waste Africa programme, which aims at enhancing the environmental governance of e-wastes and creating favourable social and economic conditions for partnerships and small businesses in the recycling sector in Africa. The initial phase of the programme consists of the E-waste Africa project and complementary activities triggered by the project and implemented by partner organizations. Following completion of the E-waste Africa project, follow-up activities are expected to be carried out supporting countries in the region to tackle e-waste issues.
Further information: www.basel.int Manhart, A.; Prakash, S.; Hermann, A.; Seum, S. (2011) more informationPDF filedownload (1327 kByte)
Instruments for the Replacement of Old Appliances
Common appliance policy – All for one, One for all – Energy Labels
This report focuses on instruments intended to promote the replacement of less efficient appliances and the market penetration of more efficient ones. Its main objective is to create an overview of possible instruments, mention their respective advantages and drawbacks, and to present good practice examples. Rüdenauer, I.; Fischer, C. (2011) more informationPDF filedownload (1 kByte)
The Development of Climate Negotiations in View of Durban (COP 17)
This report provides an overview of the development of the negotiations within the UNFCCC since COP 17 in Durban. It summarises the key developments in 2011 and provides short overviews for all negotiation areas. The overview also includes a state of play of the Cancún Agreement and explains the position of the main Parties and negotiation groups. It is supplemented by short overviews for individual countries and stakeholder groups. Herold, A.; Cames, M. (2011) more informationPDF filedownload (731 kByte)
Social impacts of artisanal cobalt mining in Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo
Between 67,000 and 108,000 workers are involved in the extraction of cobalt in mostly unregistered mines in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. They frequently work under dangerous conditions; fatal accidents are the order of the day. Each year more than one hundred people die in Congolese mines as a result of landslides, shaft collapses and flooding. Child labour is also common: 19,000 to 30,000 children under the age of 15 extract or wash the ore, and separate the extracted minerals. Tsurukawa, N.; Prakash, S.; Manhart, A. (2011) more informationPDF filedownload (2769 kByte)
Preparatory study for a review of Regulation (EC) No 842/2006 on certain fluorinated greenhouse gases - Final report
Prepared for the European Commission in the context of Service Contract No 070307/2009/548866/SER/C4
The objective of this project was to assist the Commission in reviewing Regulation (EC) No 842/2006 by providing technical data, analyses and general support. The project included the following tasks:
A review of relevant F-gas markets and policies internationally as well as in the EU-27, including investigation of possible interactions, complementarities or overlaps amongst the EU F-gas policy framework (F-gas Regulation and MAC Directive) and other EU or international policies.
An assessment of the effectiveness of current EU F-gas policy, through the development of appropriate models and datasets for emission scenarios in EU-27 and an ex-post assessment of the key elements in the current EU F-gas policy.
An assessment of the feasibility of emerging options for an international emission reduction arrangement for HFCs and, if appropriate, other F-gases by assessing the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the replacement of F-gases, developing and comparing scenarios for the control of supply and/or production of HFCs while considering any other elements that could be appropriate to complement a possible international reduction arrangement for HFCs.
The development of options and recommendations for the review of the F-gas Regulation and an analysis of their impacts.
Post2012 climate regime options for global GHG emission reduction
Analysis and evaluation of regime options and reduction potential for achieving the 2° degree target with respect to environmental effectiveness, costs and institutional aspects
This report explores the environmental and economic effects of the pledges submitted by industrialized and major developing countries for 2020 under the Copenhagen Accord and provides an in-depth comparison with results arrived at in other model analyses. Two scenarios reflect the lower (“weak”) and upper (“ambitious”) bounds of the Copenhagen pledges. In addition, two scenarios in accordance with the IPCC range for reaching a 2°C target are analyzed with industrialized countries in aggregate reducing their CO2 emissions by 30 % in 2020 compared to 1990 levels. For all four policy scenarios the effects of emission paths leading to a global reduction target of 50 % below 1990 levels in 2050 are also simulated for 2030. In addition, a separate scenario is carried out which estimates the costs of an unconditioned EU 30 % emission reduction target, i.e. where the EU adopts a 30 % emission reduction target in 2020 (rather than a 20 % reduction target), while all other countries stick with their “weak” pledges. Not included in the calculations is possible financial support for developing countries from industrialized countries as currently discussed in the climate change negotiations and laid out in the Copenhagen Accord. Schumacher, K.; Graichen, J.; Healy, S.; Schleich, J.; Duscha, V. (2011) more informationPDF filedownload (1422 kByte)
Warming up to renewable heat
Policy Options Boosting Renewables in the Heating Market
Final Report of the IEE project “Policy development for improving RES-H/C penetration in European Member States (RES-H Policy)“ Bürger, V.; Kranzl, L.; Hummel, M.; Müller, A.; Connor, P.; Ericsson, K.; Beurskens, L.; Steinbach, J.; Ragwitz, M. (2011) more informationPDF filedownload (4183 kByte)
Informal e-waste management in Lagos, Nigeria – socio-economic impacts and feasibility of international recycling co-operations
Component 3 of the UNEP SBC E-waste Africa Project
This study is integral part of the E-waste Africa Project and contains an in-depth socio-economic study on the functioning and the sustainability impacts of the informal EEE refurbishing and e-waste recycling sector in Lagos, as well as a comparison of currently practiced and best available recycling technologies. By combining these types of analysis, the report derives “best applicable technologies” regarded suitable for the implementation in the Nigerian context. In addition, the report formulates recommendations to policy-makers, the Nigerian recycling industry and for pilot follow-up activities.
Further information: www.basel.int Manhart, A.; Osibanjo, O.; Aderinto, A.; Prakash, S. (2011) more informationPDF filedownload (1867 kByte)
Contextualising behavioural change in energy programmes involving intermediaries and policymaking organizations working towards changing behaviour
International industrial competitiveness, carbon leakage and approaches to carbon pricing
Report form the Workshop 18 May 2010, BerlinHealy, S. and Schumacher, K. (2011): Product classification and its implication on competitiveness and carbon leakage Aluminium Climate Strategies Report
Healy, S. and Schumacher, K. (2011): Product classification and its implication on competitiveness and carbon leakage – Pulp paper and paperboard Climate Strategies Report
Quirion P., Schumacher, K. and Healy, S. (2011): Modelling the allowance allocation method of the EU ETS – An application to the cement industry. Climate Strategies Report Healy, S.; Schumacher, K. (2011) more informationPDF filedownload (1 kByte)
Radiological Consequences of the Fukushima Event via Water Pathways
Background on dose calculations for fish and seaweed consumption
In connection with the accident in Fukushima large amounts of highly contaminated water seeped through the structures of the buildings of Unit 2, collected on lower levels of the reactor buildings, and made their way to rooms on lower levels of the turbine building.
This paper quantifies the data, that is measured by TEPCO, adds calculated doses for selected pathways, and draws conclusions from this data and doses in respect to short- and longer term conse-quences. Schmidt, G. (2011) more informationPDF filedownload (159 kByte)
Functioning of the ETS and the flexible mechanisms
In 2003, the EU established a ‘cap & trade’ emissions trading system (EU ETS) for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of large industrial sources such as power plants, refineries and steel works. Since 2005, covered installations need a tradable allowance for each tonne of GHG emission. To ensure a reduction of -71% in 2050 compared to 2005 the cap is constantly reduced. This briefing explains the basic functioning of the EU ETS and how emission reduction projects outside the EU, so called Flexible Mechanisms, can be used for compliance under the EU ETS.
The briefing paper Functioning of the ETS and the flexible mechanisms can be downloaded here >> Cames, M.; Matthes, F.; Healy, S. (2011) more informationPDF filedownload (29 kByte)
European second-hand car market analysis - Final Report
for the European Commission DG Climate Action
The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and other emissions from the transport sector is a highly relevant issue at European level. In order to establish a coherent and effective European policy in this field it is vital to have sound information on the composition of the vehicle fleet in Europe. However, particularly in the passenger car sector relevant knowledge is limited. By analysing the cross-border trade of second hand cars within EU 27 as well as the corresponding vehicle usage patterns this study contributes to an improved understanding of the situation thus providing valuable information for fleet modelling and evolution forecasts. Mehlhart, G.; Merz, C.; Akkermans, L.; Jordal-Jørgensen, J. (2011) more informationPDF filedownload (1023 kByte)
Smart Grids require innovations in the electricity networks, mainly on the level of the distributed system operator (DSO). A main objective is to increase the share of distributed generation (DG) connected to that network level, but also to enable load management on the demand side. This paper analyses network innovations in the context of the regulatory framework, namely incentive regulation. Bauknecht, D. (2011) more informationPDF filedownload (1 kByte)
The Vision Scenario for the European Union. 2011 Update for the EU-27
The Vision Scenario represents a pathway which consistently combines short- and medium-term objectives with the long-term objectives. Furthermore it is in line with the greenhouse gas emission budget, which could allow the increase of the global mean temperature to be kept to a level below 2°C compared to pre-industrial levels. Matthes, F.; Hermann, H.; Zimmer, W. (2011) more informationPDF filedownload (309 kByte)
Study on Rare Earths and Their Recycling
Final Report for The Greens/EFA Group in the European Parliament
The focus of this study for the Greens/EFA Group in the European Parliament lies on the development of a European strategy for a sustainable rare earth economy. It particularly addresses the recycling, the substitution and the efficient use of rare earths and develops a strategy towards a green rare earth economy. Schüler, D.; Buchert, M.; Liu, R.; Degreif, S.; Merz, C. (2011) more informationPDF filedownload (1163 kByte)
Free allocation of emission allowances and CDM/JI credits within the EU ETS
Analysis of selected industries and companies in Germany
The first two trading periods of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) included extensive free allocation of emission allowances.
Since the carbon price is passed on – in an economically rational way – to the electricity price in the electricity production sector, electricity producers were able to reap substantial additional revenue, a significant amount of which results from the free allocation of emission allowances. Taking into account the nuclear fuel tax (to be introduced in Germany from 2011 onwards) which also aims to absorb additional revenue from the EU ETS, the additional revenue for electricity producers from the first and second trading periods of the EU ETS considered in this paper are estimated to amount to € 39 billion (without nuclear fuel tax) or approx. € 34.8 billion (with nuclear fuel tax). Hermann, H.; Graichen, V.; Gammelin, C.; Matthes, F. (2010) more informationPDF filedownload (192 kByte)
The development of climate negotiations in view of Cancun (COP 16)
This report provides an overview of the development of the negotiations within the UNFCCC since COP 15 in Copenhagen. It summarises the key developments in 2010 and provides short overviews for all negotiation areas. The overview also includes a state of play of the Copenhagen Accord and explains the position of the main Parties and negotiation groups. It is supplemented by short overviews for individual countries and stakeholder groups. Herold, A.; Cames, M. (2010) more informationPDF filedownload (883 kByte)
What would it take to unlock the full potential of biofuels?
A contribution to the Comment:Visions online discussion, November 2010
The key formula of a long-term strategy (2050 horizon) for sustainable biomass is that renewable resources are primarily used as raw materials, whereas waste and biomass residues – stemming increasingly from used products made from renewable raw materials - mainly serve as energy sources (i.e. for electricity, heat, and transport). This couples renewable raw material needs (which are growing when “greening” the economy) with renewable energy needs (which are growing when decarbonizing the global energy system), thus avoiding feedstock competition. Fritsche, U. R. (2010) more informationPDF filedownload (29 kByte)
Study of the ozone depletion and global warming potentials associated with fridge recycling operations that involve the manual stripping of polyurethane insulation foam
In the present study, the average emissions associated with the manual disassembly of refrigeration appliances were determined solely during the manual dismantling phase. The emissions associated with the subsequent disposal phase will be determined at a later date as part of a separate expert study and assessed in a joint final report. Dehoust, G.; Schüler, D. (2010) more informationPDF filedownload (2495 kByte)
Flows of used and end-of life e-products from Germany, The Netherlands and Belgium
Component 1 of the UNEP SBC E-waste Africa Project
This study is integral part of the E-waste Africa Project. The aim of the research is to identify the principle pathways of used electronic and electric equipment (EEE) from Europe to West Africa as well as potential leakage points for end-of-life products that are mandatory required under the WEEE directive to undergo sound waste treatment within Europe. The study focuses on sources, destinations and volumes of used EEE exports as well as on the characteristics of the export business. The role of the two ports and regions in focus will be analysed.
Further information: www.basel.int Seum, S.; Hermann, A. (2010) more informationPDF filedownload (506 kByte)
Socio-economic assessment and feasibility study on sustainable e-waste management in Ghana
The E-waste Africa Project aims at enhancing environmental governance of e-waste and at creating favourable social and economic conditions for partnerships and small businesses in the recycling sector in Africa. In particular the project seeks to better understand and regulate the transboundary movements of used and obsolete e-equipment from Europe to Africa, and also to improve the local e-waste management capacities in many African countries, such as Nigeria, Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire and Benin. Apart from dealing with a better management and control of the legal and illegal trade of used and obsolete equipment from developed to developing countries, the project has a special focus on identifying solutions for sustainable management of domestically generated e-waste too. Prakash, S.; Manhart, A. (2010) more informationPDF filedownload (1582 kByte)
EcoTransIT World – Ecological Transport Information Tool for Worldwide Transports
EcoTransIT operates on a sound scientific basis with data that is accepted Europe-wide. The Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (ifeu), Heidelberg, is in charge of the scientific issues such as the environmental data. Ifeu used the Handbook on Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA), data from the Assessment and Reliability of Transport Emission Models and Inventory Systems (ARTEMIS), the ecoinvent database and others. The German Federal Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt, UBA) provided data for the environmental compatibility of various transport modes car, a truck, rail, inland waterways and aircraft. The technical implementation and development of the relevant software were carried out by RMCon. Schmied, M.; Seum, S.; et al. (2010) more informationPDF filedownload (1 kByte)
Greenhouse gas emissions trading and complementary policies
Developing a smart mix for ambitious climate policies
2010 Rating of Designated Operational Entities (DOEs) accredited under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
Report for WWF - Corrected version
Designated Operational Entities (DOEs) are accredited independent entities responsible for ensuring that proposed projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) meet all requirements established by the CDM Executive Board operating under the Kyoto Protocol. In May 2009, Öko-Institut and WWF published a first rating of DOEs. The rating aims to provide transparent information to the market with regards to how well DOEs are fulfilling the requirements and expectations of the CDM Executive Board. This report updates the rating and in addition evaluates the current validation and verification process and provides recommendations for improvements. Schneider, L.; Mohr, L. (2010) more informationPDF filedownload (585 kByte)
Post-2012 climate regime
How industrial and developing nations can help to reduce emissions – assessing emission trends, reduction potentials, incentive systems and negotiation options
This report analyses the emissions reduction targets submitted under the Copenhagen Accord by developed and developing countries in matters of four key questions:
Do the pledges add up to the emission reductions required necessary by science?
What are the costs associated with meeting the given targets?
Are the proposed emission reduction efforts of Annex I parties
What would comparable efforts look like taking country-specific socio-economic indicators into account?
Secondary to these questions this report explores the economic and environmental implications of the submitted pledges and NAMAs. Furthermore, we analyze and assess the comparability of efforts of Annex I mitigation pledges compared to a range of socio-economic indicators that may provide a basis for a “fair” effort sharing agreement to achieve a given target. Graichen, J.; Healy, S.; Schumacher, K.; Duscha, V.; Schleich, J. (2010) more informationPDF filedownload (576 kByte)
Eurometaux’s proposals for the Raw Materials Initiative
This report describes the concrete measures identified that should help to cope with the specific problems encountered by the NFM industry. For the non-ferrous metals industry, it is essential to establish the above-mentioned processes and improvements identified in order to improve access to secondary raw materials. A high level of attention and high-level steering are necessary in order to ensure that all the various proposals and large number of stakeholders and contributors keep to a coherent implementation course. Buchert, M.; Mehlhart, G. (2010) more informationPDF filedownload (471 kByte)
Integration of marine transport into the European Emissions Trading System
Environmental, economic and legal analysis of different options
A new UBA study analyses options for integrating the greenhouse gas emissions from marine transport into the EU emissions trading system. IMO (International Maritime Organization) bodies have not reached agreement so far on substantial climate protection measures in marine transport. If no progress is made at IMO level, integrating marine transport into the European emissions trading system could be a first step on the road towards a global solution. Seum, S.; Graichen, J.; et al. (2010) more informationPDF filedownload (1 kByte)
Legal feasibility study on the introduction of a nanoproduct register
A register of nanoproducts (nanomaterials, mixtures and articles) produced or placed on the market in Germany is legally viable and is workable in practice. The purpose of such a product register and a corresponding mandatory reporting requirement is to provide the authorities with an overview of nanoproducts produced or put on the market in Germany. Following the precautionary principle, the register aims to prevent the emergence of hazards to the life and health of humans (including at their workplace), as well as to the environment as a dynamic complex, that may result from the production, utilisation and disposal of nanoproducts. Hermann, A.; Möller, M. (2010) more informationPDF filedownload (633 kByte)
REACH Practical Guide on Exposure Assessment and Communication in the Supply Chains
This document has been prepared by a VCI working group as part of the joint Cefic/VCI project to develop tools and guidance’s for industry to develop Chemical Safety Assessments, Chemical Safety Reports and Exposure Scenarios.
In the second edition (2010) of the Practical Guide the new topic „Mixtures under REACH“ has been described in detail (see Part III).
The ZIP-file contains:
REACH Practical Guide Part I: Introduction
REACH Practical Guide Part II: Exposure scenarios and communications in the supply chains
REACH Practical Guide Part III: Mixtures under REACH
REACH Practical Guide Part IV: Supplement Exposure Estimation
Comments on Draft Consultation paper definition highly biodiverse grasslands
The sustainability requirements of the Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources establish that raw materials used for the production of biofuels and bioliquids may not be produced on land that had the status of highly biodiverse grassland in or after January 2008. The objective of the consultation is to seek views on possible approaches to define the criteria and ranges of highly biodiverse grasslands. This will feed into the drafting of a Commission Decision on the establishment of criteria and ranges of highly biodiverse grasslands for the purpose of Directive 2009/28/EC. Hennenberg, K. (2010) more informationPDF filedownload (1 kByte)
The Power of Bioenergy-Related Standards to Protect Biodiversity
The sustainable production of bioenergy is vital to avoiding negative impacts on environmental goods such as climate, soil, water, and especially biodiversity. We propose three key issues that should be addressed in any biodiversity risk-mitigation strategy: conservation of areas of significant biodiversity value; mitigation of negative effects related to indirect land-use change; and promotion of agricultural practices with few negative impacts on biodiversity. Hennenberg, K.; Fritsche, U. R.; Wiegmann, K. (2010) more informationPDF filedownload (89 kByte)
Environmental impacts and impact on the electricity market of a large scale introduction of electric cars in Europe, Critical review of literature
ETC/ACC Technical Paper 2009/4
Vehicles with electric propulsion are considered as an attractive option on the pathway towards low-emission vehicles that could enable the transport sector to reduce sectoral greenhouse gas emissions by a significant degree. Due to major progress in battery technology, vehicles with electric operation mode are expected to enter the market within the next few years. Electric vehicles are characterised by the highest engine efficiency of existing propulsion systems and zero tailpipe emissions. At the same time it has to be kept in mind that well-to-wheel emissions of electric vehicles are strongly dependent on the carbon-intensity of power generation. Hacker, F.; Harthan, R.; Matthes, F.; Zimmer, W. (2009) more informationPDF filedownload (1 kByte)
A strategy for a climate safe 2050
‘Blueprint Germany’, which has been prepared by Prognos, Öko-Institut and Dr. Ziesing on behalf of WWF, shows that the transformation from a high-carbon to a low-carbon economy is possible and affordable. By committing to this transformation path, Germany could become a model for other countries. Matthes, F.; Busche, J.; Graichen, V.; Zimmer, W.; Hermann, H.; Penninger, G.; Mohr, M. (2009) more informationPDF filedownload (496 kByte)
Critical Metals for Sustainable Technologies and their Recycling Potential
The focus of this study lies on future sustainable technologies (FST), such as renewable energies and energy efficient technologies, which will make use of indium (In), germanium (Ge), tantalum (Ta), PGM [platinum group metals, such as ruthenium (Ru), platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd)], tellurium (Te), cobalt (Co), lithium (Li), gallium (Ga) and RE (rare earths)1. These are also classified as ‘green minor metals’, which are the basis for cleaner technology innovation. Other interesting metals like titanium or magnesium (used for light weight applications) are not addressed by this study but should be also an issue for further UNEP investigations and activities in the future. Bleher, D.; Buchert, M.; Schüler, D. (2009) more informationPDF filedownload (4823 kByte)
A framework for a sectoral crediting mechanism in a post-2012 climate regime
Report for the Global Wind Energy Council
This report explores a sectoral crediting mechanism (SCM) for developing countries in a post-2012 UNFCCC climate regime. The report explores how a SCM could be implemented in practice. Different options for designing a SCM are identified and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Based on this analysis of options, a consistent policy framework for the introduction of a SCM under UNFCCC is proposed. The report focuses on a bottom-up approach where developing countries make proposals for implementing a SCM which are subsequently reviewed and agreed internationally. The report aims at facilitating the negotiation of such a mechanism under the UNFCCC. Schneider, L.; Cames, M. (2009) more informationPDF filedownload (256 kByte)
A rating of Designated Operational Entities (DOEs) Accredited under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
Scope, methodology and results
Designated Operational Entities (DOEs) are accredited independent entities responsible for ensuring that proposed projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) meet all requirements established by the CDM Executive Board operating under the Kyoto Protocol. This rating of DOEs, developed by WWF and Öko-Institut, aims to provide transparent information to the market with regards to how well DOEs are fulfilling the requirements and expectations of the CDM Executive Board. Schneider, L.; Mohr, L. (2009) more informationPDF filedownload (154 kByte)
A rating of Designated Operational Entities (DOEs) Accredited under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) - Summary
Designated Operational Entities (DOEs) are accredited independent entities responsible for ensuring that proposed projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) meet all requirements established by the CDM Executive Board operating under the Kyoto Protocol. This rating of DOEs, developed by WWF and Öko-Institut, aims to provide transparent information to the market with regards to how well DOEs are fulfilling the requirements and expectations of the CDM Executive Board. Schneider, L.; Mohr, L. (2009) more informationPDF filedownload (37 kByte)
Corporate Social Responsibility in Europe
Rhetoric and Realities
The acid test of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is simply this: does it lead to positive impacts on society and the environment or is it just rhetoric? And if it does lead to positive impacts, how can these be enhanced? This timely book tackles this cutting-edge challenge by presenting empirical findings from a range of surveys and in-depth case studies. These build on a new methodological and theoretical framework for assessing and explaining the sustainability impact of CSR. Barth, R.; Wolff, F. (2009) more informationPDF filedownload (1 kByte)
Product Carbon Footprinting – The Right Way to Promote Low Carbon Products and Consumption Habits?
Guidelines for Social Life Cycle Assessment of Products
The publication of the Guidelines for Social Life Cycle Assessment produced by the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative sets a milestone by outlining a framework and best-practices for assessing the social and socio-economic impacts of product life cycles. The guidelines also highlight where new research is needed. Andrews, E. S.; Barthel, L. P.; Benoit, C.; Ciroth, A.; Cucuzzella, C; Gensch, C.; Hebert, J.; Lesa-ge, P.; Manhart, A.; Mazeau, P.; Mazijn, B.; Methot, A.-L.; Moberg, A.; Norris, G.; Parent, J.; Prakash, S.; et al. (2009) more informationPDF filedownload (2345 kByte)
Environmental product indicators and benchmarks in the context of environmental labels and declarations
ANEC commissioned the Öko-Institut e.V. to conduct a research study on various issues related to environmental labels and declarations which are of particular relevance to the consumers. The issues involve: (a) the usefulness of life cycle assessment methodology for product labelling schemes, (b) feasibility of aggregation approaches, such as EcoGrade and Eco-indicator, for assessing the environmental performance of products, (c) inclusion of qualitative indicators not covered by the LCA methodology, (d) the advantages and disadvantages of energy versus CO2-indicators, and (e) quality benchmarks for environmental data sheets. The purpose of the research will be to support ANEC and its member organisations in their position finding processes and to enable them to shape the upcoming discussion processes on these issues. Prakash, S.; Manhart, A.; Stratmann, B. (2008) more informationPDF filedownload (497 kByte)
New challenges for international co-operation and development
The following research aims to elaborate on the manifold sustainability impacts resulting from the growth of emerging economies and developing countries, thus wanting to identify needs for research, development strategies and co-operation approaches. While this task – due to its immense dimensions – is not manageable for one single research project, the analysis follows a spotlight approach. Manhart, A.; Schmitt, K.; Stahl, H.; Grießhammer, R. (2008) more informationPDF filedownload (361 kByte)
Impacts of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme on the industrial competitiveness in Germany
The aim of this paper is to assess the following issues
Which sectors in Germany may face significant increases in direct or indirect costs
because of the EU ETS?
Which sectors are likely to face a high exposure to international competition which
could then lead to carbon leakage?
Which mechanisms exist to address competitiveness/leakage concerns arising in the
context of the EU ETS?
Windfall profits of German electricity producers in the second phase of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (2008-2012)
Briefing Paper for World Wide Fund for Nature Germany (WWF Germany)
The analysis covers the five largest German electricity production companies: E.ON, RWE, Vattenfall Europe, Energie Baden-Württemberg (EnBW) and Evonik Steag as well as the electricity production of these companies in Germany. The windfall profits of these companies on other European sub-markets are therefore not taken into account in the following analysis.
The goal of the analysis is, amongst other things, to determine the share of the total windfall profits that stems from the free allocation of emission allowances, the continuation of which for the time period after 2012 is currently being vehemently called for by German electricity producers (amongst others). In this way, the question of the scale of the profit orientation that lies behind the demand for free allocation of CO2 allowances can also be pursued.
Matthes, F. (2008) more informationPDF filedownload (137 kByte)
Distributed Generation and the Regulation of Electricity Networks
Modelling of the impacts of policies for sustainable use of cars
Öko-Institut has participated in a project for the European Commission, the Joint research Centre and the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, the aim of which was to develop TREMOVE by adding a waste materials module and by introducing endogenous scrappage decisions. The study also contributed to research on the new policy framework on “Sustainable Consumption and Production”, which proposes effective and concrete actions towards a low carbon and resource- and energy-efficient economy. In practice the TREMOVE model was extended with means of a materials database in order to assess the material demand by new cars and the waste flows of end of life vehicles in detail. The role of Öko-Institut in the framework of this project was the development of the material and waste database. Our project partners were Transport and Mobility Leuven and Frauenhofer ISI. Zimmer, W.; Hacker, F.; Buchert, M.; Seum, S. (2008) more informationPDF filedownload (1 kByte)
Analysis of European greenhouse gas inventories in the aviation sector
ETC/ACC Technical Paper 2007/6
Greenhouse gas emissions from aviation are part of the reporting obligations of Parties to the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. Only emissions from domestic aviation are part of the national emission reduction obligations and have to be reported separately from emissions caused by international aviation. While data on total fuel consumption by aviation is normally available the split between domestic and international aviation requires information which is not always available. This paper compares estimates for greenhouse gas emissions from aviation as reported by EEA Member States with estimates calculated by the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (Eurocontrol). Eurocontrol calculations are based on flight movement data only and provide an estimate for fuel burn and GHG emissions which is independent of the estimates produces by the Member States. This analysis is part of the quality assurance and quality control programme for the greenhouse gas inventory of the European Community and might help countries and the EC in improving their estimates.
Download: http://air-climate.eionet.europa.eu/reports Graichen, J. (2008) more informationPDF filedownload (1 kByte)
The EU Emissions Trading Scheme in numbers
ETC/ACC Technical Paper 2007/2
The EU Emissions Trading Scheme is one of the main and most prominent measures of the EU for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and reaching its Kyoto target. One of the main sources for information on the scheme is the community independent transaction log (CITL). This report provides an overview on the information contained in the CITL for the first two years of the trading scheme as well as an assessment of the Commission Decisions for the second trading period from 2008-12. Graichen, J.; Graichen, V. (2007) more informationPDF filedownload (1 kByte)
Options for a 2020 EU Burden Sharing Agreement
Working Paper for the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety
Within the European Union the Member States face the problem of finding target sharing agreements for different binding and quantified commitments for the total emission reduction commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), for the caps within the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) and regarding the expansion of energy supply from renewable energy sources. The three targets are interlinked and the process for the target sharing agreement follows not in all dimensions the same timing. The paper outlines the different approaches which could constitute the basis for the upcoming debates. The analysis presented in this paper is geared to identifying starting points, general principles and key findings for the debate. Matthes, F.; Graichen, J. (2007) more informationPDF filedownload (748 kByte)
Is the CDM fulfilling its environmental and sustainable development objectives? An evaluation of the CDM and options for improvement
Report prepared for WWF
Oeko-Institut has launched a report on the CDM. The report assesses the contribution of the CDM to meeting its environmental and sustainable development objectives and provides recommendations for improving the mechanism.
The report’s findings are based on a systematic evaluation of 93 randomly chosen registered CDM projects as well as interviews and a literature survey. The report discusses selected areas which are deemed particularly important for achieving its environmental and sustainable development objectives, including:
the role and performance of designated operational entities (DOEs),
the demonstration of additionality,
the contribution of CDM projects to sustainable development,
the role of HFC-23 and N2O destruction projects,
the participation of stakeholders in the process,
the environmental integrity of “policy CDM” and “sectoral CDM”, and options for limiting the use of CDM and JI by Annex I countries and in emissions trading schemes.
This report contains the results of the pre-study on the “Implementation of Environmental Data Centres” carried out on behalf of Eurostat between December 2006 and August 2007. Zangl, S.; Lohse, J.; Stahl, H.; Schüler, D.; Gensch, C. (2007) more informationPDF filedownload (972 kByte)
Environmental and economic evaluation of the accelerated replacement of domestic appliances
Case study refrigerators and freezers - Final Report
The goal of this study was to compare the further use of appliances in stock with the acquisition and use of new appliances, considering both environmental and economic aspects. The environmental assessment is based on LCA, the economic analysis considers the life cycle costs, taking into account the total costs of ownership for private households. Rüdenauer, I.; Gensch, C. (2007) more informationPDF filedownload (337 kByte)
The contribution of local experiments and negotiation processes to field-level learning in emerging (niche) technologies
Meta-analysis of 27 new energy projects in Europe
Paper submitted for the special issue of the Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society on Renewable Energy & Sustainability (version of July 25, 2007) Brohmann, B.; et al. (2007) more informationPDF filedownload (109 kByte)
Costs and Benefits of Green Public Procurement in Europe
Due to the market power of the purchasing activities of public authorities, green public procurement (GPP) can make an important contribution to reducing environmental impacts and to changing unsustainable production and consumption patterns. Beside the direct positive effects on the environmental impacts, GPP can also stimulate innovation of environmental technologies and serve as an example for private procurement. Rüdenauer, I.; Dross, M.; Eberle, U.; Gensch, C.; Graulich, K.; Hünecke, K.; Koch, Y.; Möller, M.; Quack, D.; Seebach, D.; Zimmer, W.; et al. (2007) more informationPDF filedownload (4215 kByte)
Competitiveness, innovation and sustainability – clarifying the concepts and their interrelations
This paper aims at providing introductory information for all those who are interested in the topic but have not yet been confronted to a greater extent with the scientific background to it. Wolff, F.; Schmitt, K.; Hochfeld, C. (2007) more informationPDF filedownload (139 kByte)
Towards a new methodology for creating societal acceptance of new energy project
Paper for the International Energy Workshop, June 25-27, 2007, Stanford (CA)
This paper proposes a methodology for creating societal acceptance of new energy projects based on an analysis of 22 energy projects in Europe. The framework to compile and analyze the cases is based on socio-technical transitions theory and recent sociological research on public participation in science and technology. In particular we analyze (1) the initial vision articulated by the initiator; (2) the project’s stakeholders and their expectations; (3) the way expectations are negotiated; (4) the way visions are translated into action; and (5) success of the project in terms of societal acceptance, i.e. the way in which the negotiations resulted in degrees of alignment among the stakeholder expectations and project initiator’s vision. We conclude with a proposal for a new six-step methodology for improving societal acceptance of new energy projects. This methodology is currently explored, used and reflected upon in five projects in Europe: a German biomass project, an Italian thermodynamic solar project, an Icelandic hydrogen project, a Dutch CCS project and a Hungarian wind project (www.createacceptance.net).
Brohmann, B.; et al. (2007) more informationPDF filedownload (161 kByte)
Key Social Impacts of Electronics Production and WEEE-Recycling in China
Undeniably, the electronics industry is highly relevant for the Chinese economy and seems to continue being important in the future. Nevertheless there are an ongoing discussions on the social and environmental sustainability of this sector in China and worldwide. These discussions mainly address labour issues, health and safety and environmental pollution in production, product use and end-of life treatment. This study shall contribute to objectify the discussion on social sustainability of the Chinese electronics industry by systematically analysing positive and negative social impacts during electronics production and end-of-life treatment in China. Thereby the study shall provide a basis to identify intervention strategies for increasing the overall social performance of electronic products. Manhart, A. (2007) more informationPDF filedownload (145 kByte)
Comparison among different decommissioning funds methodologies for nuclear installations
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) – Recycling of CFC – and HC – containing refrigerator equipment (Summary)
This life cycle assessment (LCA) was commissioned by the RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment. Its objective is to make an ecological comparison of the different disposal channels for waste domestic refrigeration appliances containing CFCs and hydrocarbons that could arise from potential changes to the WEEE Directive. The study was carried out in accordance with ISO 14040 and 14044. It also includes a critical review by Mr Giegrich of the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung) in Heidelberg. Assistance was also provided by Dr Keri of the Austrian Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (Bundesministerium für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft), Mr Schmit of the Luxembourg State Environmental Agency (Umweltamt) and Mr Hornberger and Ms Janusz-Renault of the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation (Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionstechnik und Automatisierung). Dehoust, G.; Schüler, D.; Rüdenauer, I. (2007) more informationPDF filedownload (202 kByte)
Life cycle assessment of the treatment and recycling of refrigeration equipment containing CFCs and hydrocarbons (Final report)
This life cycle assessment (LCA) was commissioned by the RAL Quality Assurance Association for the Demanufacture of Refrigeration Equipment. Its objective is to make an ecological comparison of the different disposal channels for waste domestic refrigeration appliances containing CFCs and hydrocarbons that could arise from potential changes to the WEEE Directive. The study was carried out in accordance with ISO 14040 and 14044. It also includes a critical review by Mr Giegrich of the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung) in Heidelberg. Assistance was also provided by Dr Keri of the Austrian Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (Bundesministerium für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft), Mr Schmit of the Luxembourg State Environmental Agency (Umweltamt) and Mr Hornberger and Ms Janusz-Renault of the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation (Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionstechnik und Automatisierung). Dehoust, G.; Schüler, D. (2007) more informationPDF filedownload (832 kByte)
Power Generation Market Concentration in Europe 1996-2005. An Empirical Analysis
The liberalisation of the European power market has significantly changed the frame-work of the electricity industry. The process of market opening and securing fair, trans-parent and sustainable third party access is still underway. However, (incomplete) liber-alisation can be thwarted by concentration trends in the electricity generation market.
This study analyses the market concentration trends in six regional markets in Europe from 1996 to 2005 based on different methodological approaches. Matthes, F.; Grashof, K.; Gores, S. (2007) more informationPDF filedownload (166 kByte)
OBRA - European observatory for long-term governance on radioactive waste management
Continuing societal concerns limit the application of deep geological disposal in many countries. Wider societal involvement at a variety of governance levels in an open, inclusive and transparent manner is a top-level concern in all European and national organisations involved in radioactive waste management. Nevertheless, current approaches to governance of spent nuclear fuel reveal weaknesses. Local and regional communities lack access to an authoritative yet independent platform of experts to address their concerns and information needs in a systematic way and which could provide them with the sufficient knowledge base as to be able to take sound decisions concerning the long-term. Kallenbach-Herbert, B.; Brohmann, B. (2007) more informationPDF filedownload (339 kByte)
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation
ETC/ACC Technical Paper 2006/3
Greenhouse gas emissions from aviation have been rising steadily in the past due to increased demand for air traffic despite efficiency increases through technological improvements and operative measures. At the same time emissions from international aviation are not covered by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change or its Kyoto Protocol. The Commission of the European Communities has proposed a Directive which would include aviation in an emissions trading scheme due to the lack of progress on the international level. Graichen, J.; Gugele, B. (2006) more informationPDF filedownload (1 kByte)
Long-term prospects of CDM and JI
Research Report 204 41 192, UBA-FB 001029
This study analyses whether Germany should use the flexible mechanisms under the Kyoto protocol or whether it should continue to achieve its greenhouse gas reduction targets by dint of domestic policies and measures. It estimates the future potential of the project-based Kyoto mechanisms (CDM and JI) and the impacts of its use on the German and the global economy, using an integrated-assessment model. In a Delphi survey, the expectations of international experts on the future prospects of the project-based Kyoto mechanisms are assessed.
The study finishes with an analysis of options for promoting the use of the flexible mechanisms in Germany and concludes that the Federal Government of Germany should establish a project-based mechanisms fund of 25 to 50 million Kyoto units to cover the compliance uncertainties due to unexpected temperature or business cycle variations.
The Study can be downloaded here>> free of charge. Cames, M.; Anger, N.; Böhringer, C.; Harthan, R.; Schneider, L. (2006) more informationPDF filedownload (27 kByte)
Green Goal TM - Legacy Report
In June and July 2006 the world experienced a breathtaking football festival, and for the first time in the history of the World Cup the environment was on the programme. With Green Goal™, an innovative and ambitious environmental programme was successfully carried out at the 2006 FIFA World Cup™ in Germany, which pursued new paths for large sporting events. The Green Goal vision was both simple and demanding: adverse effects on the environment, which would inevitably be associated with the organization of the World Cup in Germany, should be reduced to the greatest extent possible. The Executive Board of the Organizing Committee (OC), with its President Franz Beckenbauer, regarded Green Goal from the very beginning as an integral part of the planning and organization of the tournament and a contribution towards the “sustainable legacy” of the World Cup. Stahl, H.; Hochfeld, C.; Schmied, M. (2006) more informationPDF filedownload (4950 kByte)
Sustainability Standards for Bioenergy
This report begins in Section 1 with an introduction to key bioenergy issues, summarizing “drivers”, global potential, the key issues of sustainable biomass and standards.
Section 2 gives a brief description of key potential problems and conflict areas arising from increased bioenergy supply, and derives core sustainability standards for each problem area. The standards were determined on the basis of a broad review of existing labeling and certification schemes for bio-based products and previous work carried out by the authors. A distinction is made between the use of biogenic residues/wastes and the dedicated cultivation of bioenergy crops. Our study focuses on the latter.
Section 3 discusses the legal background to implementing sustainability standards with special focus on international rules, EU legal settings and certain German laws. Legal instruments are also briefly described. Fritsche, U. R.; Hünecke, K.; Hermann LL.M., A.; Schulze, F.; Wiegmann, K. (2006) more informationPDF filedownload (1520 kByte)
Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism
Lessons Learned in Ghana, India, Indonesia, South Africa and Tunisia
German Technical Cooperation has supported both the establishment and day-to-day business of Designated National Authorities (DNAs) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in Ghana, India, Indonesia, South Africa and Tunisia. Joint capacity development activities together with our in-country partners reached out to the public as well as the private sector. This report provides an overview of the process of establishing DNAs and promotion of the CDM in these five countries and summarises practical experiences and lessons learned from the capacity building activities. Schneider, L.; Grashof, K. (2006) more informationPDF filedownload (1364 kByte)
Adaptation to scientific and technical progress under the RoHS Directive
Final Report + Annexes
The EU Directive on the restriction of use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (the so-called RoHS - Restriction of Hazardous Substances – Directive) has come into force on 1 July 2006. It regulates the restriction and prohibition of the substances lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium as well as of certain brominated flame retardants (PBB and PBDE). Industry has the possibility to request an exemption from the provisions of the Directive from the European Commission. The Commission has given the Öko-Institute the mandate to evaluate these requests for exemption. Gensch, C.; Zangl, S.; Möller, M.; Lohse, J. (2006) more informationPDF filedownload (2280 kByte)
Exposure-based waiving: Concrete specifications of the waiving-conditions in the context of the registration procedure according to REACH
In October 2003 a proposal for a Regulation concerning the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals (REACH) was presented, that sets forth which information is to be provided in the framework of the registration procedure for substances. Within the framework of REACH, several provisions are made to avoid conducting specific tests if this is sufficiently justified. The exemption from conducting individual tests is termed „waiving“ in REACH.
Bunke, D.; Schneider, K.; Jäger, I. (2006) more informationPDF filedownload (681 kByte)
Life Cycle Analysis of hand-drying systems + Supplement
A comparison of cotton towels and paper towels
The European Textile Service Association (E.T.S.A.) commissioned Öko-Institut to compare two mechanical hand drying systems: the continuous cotton roll system and the paper towel system. Goal of this study was to gain more information on the environmental impacts of these two systems and to compare these systems with the objective to identify the one with the better environmental performance. Eberle, U.; Möller, M. (2006) more informationPDF filedownload (877 kByte)
Development of the Closed Cycle and Waste Management Policy Towards a Sustainable Substance Flow and Resources Policy - Abstract and summarized version
Sub-project „Identification of Relevant Substances and Materials for a Substance Flow-Oriented Resource-Conserving Waste Management“
The sub-project "Identification of Relevant Substances and Materials for a Substance Flow-Oriented Resource-Conserving Waste Management" (short title: Sustainable Materials Management – Important Potentials in Germany) represents an intermediate step in the BMU project "Development of the Closed Cycle and Waste Management Policy towards a Sustainable Substance Flow and Resources Policy" (FKZ 90531411). This Öko-Institut and IFEU-Institut sub-project will provide the Federal Environment Ministry with vital information and data relating to future focal points for closed cycle and waste management policy. This policy is dedicated to intensified utilisation of potentials for resource conservation at all levels of the production and consumption of goods. Dehoust, G.; Buchert, M.; Ferenz, J.; Hermann, A.; Jenseit, W.; Schulze, F. (2006) more informationPDF filedownload (280 kByte)
Development of the Closed Cycle and Waste Management Policy Towards a Sustainable Substance Flow and Resources Policy - Final Report (English Version)
Sub-project „Identification of Relevant Substances and Materials for a Substance Flow-Oriented Resource-Conserving Waste Management“
The sub-project "Identification of Relevant Substances and Materials for a Substance Flow-Oriented Resource-Conserving Waste Management" (short title: Sustainable Materials Management – Important Potentials in Germany) represents an intermediate step in the BMU project "Development of the Closed Cycle and Waste Management Policy towards a Sustainable Substance Flow and Resources Policy" (FKZ 90531411). This Öko-Institut and IFEU-Institut sub-project will provide the Federal Environment Ministry with vital information and data relating to future focal points for closed cycle and waste management policy. This policy is dedicated to intensified utilisation of potentials for resource conservation at all levels of the production and consumption of goods. Dehoust, G.; Buchert, M.; Ferenz, J.; Hermann, A.; Jenseit, W.; Schulze, F.; et al. (2006) more informationPDF filedownload (1821 kByte)
Effectiveness through risk reduction
A comparison of the renewable obligation in England and Wales and the feed-in system in Germany
Proceedings of the Conference, December 1st 2005, Literaturhaus, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
The proceedings summarize the conference on “Epigenetics, Transgenic Plants & Risk Assessments” organized by the Öko-Institut and Greenpeace on December 1st 2005. Seven speakers highlighted from different perspectives the complexity of genome regulation, inherent uncertainties of the genetic engineering of plants and the challenge of facing and coping with knowledge gaps. Moch, K. (2006) more informationPDF filedownload (1687 kByte)
OECD Matrix Project
Branch- and product-related emission estimation tool for manufacturers, importers, and downstream users within the REACH-system
The aim of the project is to support the use of already-existing emission estimation data for the exposure assessment which is required under REACH. The overall objective was to develop a set of technical guidance documents (manual and software tools) for emission estimation and subsequent exposure estimation as outlined in annex 1 of the draft REACH Regulation. Such guidance should be robust and easy to use by manufacturers, importers and downstream users of substances. The conceptual approach have been based on the methodology laid down in EU TGD on Risk Assessment of New and Existing Substances (2003) and the OECD Emission Scenario Documents (ESD). The ESD Matrix described in this project gives an overview on existing emission estimation data for several industrial branches. In addition, stand-alone emission estimation tools have developed for two branches (see also www.emissiontool.com). They refer to plastic additives and photochemicals. They have a modular structure and can be easily adopted to supply chains in other branches. The results have been worked out in intense exchange with RIVM, which has developed a guidance how to find the appropriate emission scenarios (see RIVM report Nr. 6012000006). Bunke, D.; Ahrens, A.; Reihlen, A.; Schenck, H.; Oenicke, M. (2006) more informationPDF filedownload (3321 kByte)
Comparison of Greenhouse-Gas Emissions and Abatement Cost of Nuclear and Alternative Energy Options from a Life-Cycle Perspective
An earlier version of t his paper was presented at the CNIC Conference on Nuclear Energy and Greenhouse-Gas Emissions, Tokyo, November 1997.
In this paper, we address both, presenting results of life-cycle cost and emission analyses of energy systems with respect to current technologies. We discuss the results with respect to other findings in the literature, and also indicate the cost-effectiveness of CO2 abatement in the electricity sector. Fritsche, U. R. (2006) more informationPDF filedownload (197 kByte)
Eco-Efficiency Analysis of Washing machines
Life Cycle Assessment and determination of optimal life span/Refinement of Task 4: Further use versus substitution of washing machines in stock
Based on the methodology of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) in these studies both the optimal life-span of new washing machines (as input for product development strategies) as well as the question of further use versus early replacement of washing machines in stock was analysed. Rüdenauer, I.; Gensch, C.; Quack, D. (2005) more informationPDF filedownload (598 kByte)
Power Generation Market Concentration in Europe 1996-2004.
An Empirical Analysis.
The liberalisation of the European power market has significantly changed the framework of the electricity industry. The process of market opening and securing fair, transparent and sustainable third party access is still under way. But (incomplete) liberalisation can be thwarted by concentration trends in the electricity generation market.
This study analyses the market concentration trends in six regional markets in Europe from 1996 to 2004 based on different methodological approaches. Matthes, F.; Poetzsch, S.; Grashof, K. (2005) more informationPDF filedownload (236 kByte)
Evaluation of selected aspects of the environmental assessment report for the Langer Heinrich Uranium Mining Project in Namibia
Due to an inappropriate selection of input data (Radium in ore and tailings) and to a too small breathing rate, the dose calculations in the EA understimates the doses for the public. Together with a higher contribution of Radon to the total dose, a person at Bloedkoppie, a publicly accessable place and a tourist attraction in 1.5 to 2.5 km distance to the mine, can exceed internationally accepted dose limits. The EA does not clearly define the areal extend, where the doses are below the dose limits and where doses exceed the limits. The areal extend, where the dose limits are exceeded, clearly reach beyond the facility’s operational area, probably reaching a distance of some kilometers. The missing definition of a clear boundary is a general short-coming of the EA and should be corrected.
Additional contradictions and problems in the EA’s calculation of doses from Radon are discussed and can give rise to an additional underestimation of doses. Schmidt, G.; Diehl, P. (2005) more informationPDF filedownload (339 kByte)
Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions of European Countries with regard to the Impact of Policies & Measures
The study investigates the climate policies of the European countries and evaluates their contribution to greenhouse gas reductions that have already been achieved as well as those which are projected for the future. It is based on a decomposition analysis which allows the driving forces of greenhouse gas emissions to be identified and compared. This analysis is supported by an in-depth analysis of selected policies (renewable energy supply, combined heat and power and waste). The analysis shows that the climate policies of all EU Member States can be improved at one point or another and that starting points for the further investigation of potential policy improvements can be identified for each EU Member State.
The Analysis can be downloaded at www.umweltdaten.de/publikationen/fpdf-l/3029.pdf Deuber,O.; Cames, M.; Poetzsch, S.; Repenning, J. (2005) more informationPDF filedownload (27 kByte)
Giving wings to emission trading
Inclusion of aviation under the European emission trading system (ETS): design and impacts
The operation and navigation of civil aircraft on domestic flights fall outsidethe scope of the Convention.
The Chicago Convention does not address the issue of emission trading. But,according to its Preamble, the Chicago Convention relates also to establishing international air transport services on the basis of equality of opportunity and sound and economical operation. As emissions trading might in principle have implications in this respect, it is relevant to assess whether the Convention contains any requirements or obstacles with regard to the coverage of international flights by an EU emissions trading scheme.
As outlined in section B, the EU emissions trading scheme can be considered to constitute laws and regulations relating to the admission to and/or departure of aircraft from its territory pursuant to Article 11 of the Convention. Therefore, the requirement in Article 11 of the Convention not to discriminate as to nationality of aircraft needs to be respected. Any EU emissions trading system must thus treat all aircraft engaged in international air navigation without distinction as to nationality.
The coverage of international aviation under the EU emissions trading scheme does not find limits under Article 12 “Rules of the air”, Article 15 “Airport and similar charges” or Article 24 “Customs duty” of the Convention.
Criteria for Assessing Environmental, Economic, and Social Aspects of Biofuels in Developing Countries in ecological, social, and economic terms
This expertise was produced in order to contribute to the ongoing debate on the economic, development, climate and energy policy dimensions of biofuel imports, e.g. from Brazil, and the associated consequences for the environment, industry and local populations. This work was commissioned by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ).
The study will be available for Download soon! Fritsche, U. R.; Hünecke, K.; Wiegmann, K. (2005) more informationPDF filedownload (354 kByte)
New Growth For Germany
On account of its high potential for energy production, biomass offers great prospects for climate protection through the reduction of greenhouse gases. At the same time, over 200,000 jobs, particularly in rural areas lacking in infrastructure, could be created. Fritsche, U. R.; et al. (2004) more informationPDF filedownload (2115 kByte)
Evaluation of the Radioactivity Release Event in December 2003 at Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant Unit
Economic measures for the reduction of the environmental impact of air transport
noise-related landing charges (FKZ 201 96 107)
Because of existing growth rates for air traffic and capacity extensions at many international airports, efforts to find effective instruments for the reduction of noise problems increase. Economic instruments gain increasingly in importance. This study examines, with an LTO-charging model differentiated according to aircraft-noise emissions and incentives for air transport companies for the use of less-noisy aircraft. The results of the study are based on a comprehensive status-quo analysis of European LTO-charging models; they demonstrate the need for harmonized development of this kind of instrument as an incentive, in order to be able to obtain transparency and comprehensibility. The study draws attention to a set of guidelines that must be considered in future. Hochfeld, C.; Arps, H.; Hermann LL.M., A.; Schmied, M.; Otten, S.; Hopf, R. (2004) more informationPDF filedownload (1489 kByte)
Energy demand of tumble driers with respect to differences in technology and ambient conditions
Tumble driers have a high ratio of and increasing impact on total electricity demand of households. In contrast to different other household appliances the market is not saturated yet and therefore growing selling rates can be expected.
Mainly two systems of tumble driers are currently available on the market: condenser tumble driers and air vented tumble driers, both powered by electricity. Tumble driers of both systems are mainly classified in the energy efficiency classes C and D.
The energy efficiency labelling of tumble driers takes into account the electricity demand of the different driers when used under standard conditions. Nevertheless under real life conditions in private households additional parameters influence the total energy demand of the two drying systems, like type of control (humidity or time control), type of fabric, loading of the drier, remaining water in the clothes after spinning in the washing machine, ambient temperature, energy demand for space heating or air humidity.
Rüdenauer, I.; Gensch, C. (2004) more informationPDF filedownload (452 kByte)
Emissions trading in international civil aviation
The contribution of international aviation to the greenhouse effect is increasing continually. The study investigates how the contribution of aviation can be reduced or limited through emissions trading. Not only are different design options (trading regime, basis for assessment, obligated parties etc.) examined, but also the avoidance costs and potentials of different reduction measures (flight route optimization, early retirement of aircraft, improvement of aerodynamics etc.) Cames, M.; Deuber,O.; Rath, U. (2004) more informationPDF filedownload (1089 kByte)
Access to Justice in Environmental Matters - ENV.A.3/ETU/2002/0030
Final Report, Country Reports and Case Studies
The main objectives of this study were to identify any general conclusions to be drawn as to the relevance and the consequences of access to justice for environmental NGOs as a general trend in these EU member states and to present appropriate recommendations in relation thereto to the European Commission based on the findings of the study.
Dross, M.; de Sadeleer, N.; Roller, G. (2003) more informationPDF filedownload (2427 kByte)
Innovative approaches to the creation of jobs in environmental protection
Summary of the research project No 201 14 111 of the UFOPLAN 2001
The situation on the German employment market is still tense. The employment effects of environmental protection are therefore – as in the past – much discussed among researchers and politicians. The study identifies innovative approaches to the creation of jobs in environmental protection, and explains how this potential can be exploited. Cames, M.; Matthes, F.; Deuber,O. (2003) more informationPDF filedownload (140 kByte)
Recovery Options for Plastic Parts from End-of-Life Vehicles: an Eco-Efficiency Assessment
The new European End-of-Life-Vehicles (ELV) Directive 2000/53/EC defines specific recovery, reuse and recycling targets for cars. In an eco-efficiency study, the Öko-Institut in Darmstadt/Germany analysed and evaluated the recycling and recovery options) for seven different plastic components from ELVs (weights ranging from 0.27 kg up to 3.14 kg).
Jenseit, W.; Stahl, H.; Wollny, V.; Wittlinger, R. (2003) more informationPDF filedownload (1110 kByte)
Green Goal - Environmental goals for the 2006 FIFA World Cup
Background paper on the concept phase (as at 31.03.2003)
The hosting of the 2006 FIFA World Cup offers Germany a great opportunity to present itself as hospitable, keen on sports and also conscious of its responsibility towards the natural environment. The Organizing Committee (OC) of the 2006 FIFA World Cup, with its president Franz Beckenbauer and the German Football Association (DFB) have recognized this opportunity and challenge. Hochfeld, C.; Stahl, H. (2003) more informationPDF filedownload (452 kByte)
Improving Energy Efficiency in Peruvian Boilers with the CDM
Feasibility study for a bundled CDM Project
This study, sponsored by GTZ, assesses the feasibility of a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project to improve energy efficiency in industrial boilers in Peru. The idea of such a CDM project came from activities undertaken within the project “Development of the National Capacity for Projects on CDM Activities,” sponsored by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in 1998. As a first step, in 1999, a pre-feasibility study was conducted. Herold, A.; Schneider, L.; Vizcarra, N. (2003) more informationPDF filedownload (2095 kByte)
Scientific research on transgenic fish with special focus on the biology of trout and salmon
Implementing Article 10 of the SEA Directive 2001/42/EC
According to Directive 2001/42/EC on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes (SEA Directive) on the environment Member States are obliged to carry out an environmental assessment of certain plans and programmes, which are likely to have significant environmental effects. Art. 10 of the Directive foresees a Monitoring of significant environmental effects of the implementation of plans and programmes. Barth, R.; Fuder, A. (2002) more informationPDF filedownload (368 kByte)
Green genetic engineering and organic Farming
All over the world organic agriculture is legally bound not to use genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In Europe neither regulation 2092/91 on organic agriculture nor the seed legislation contain provisions which enable to prescribe safety measures to prevent hybridisation between transgenic crops and organically grown plants.A thorough analysis of the new deliberate release directive 18/2001 reveals that this directive opens up the possibility to issue together with a market approval specific conditions of handling and use of a GMO. Crosspollination of an organic culture can be defined as a damage of property. The registration of ge-free zones and prescribed distances between fields are under discussion as safety measures to prevent such property damages. Barth, R.; Brauner, R.; Hermann, A.; Hermanowski, R.; Tappeser, B.; et al. (2002) more informationPDF filedownload (607 kByte)
Mobility Styles in Leisure Time: Reducing the environmental impacts of leisure and tourism travel
The research project primarily aims to close the gaps in research concerning the empirical description of leisure traffic (journey purposes, mobility characteristics); secondly, it seeks to provide new insights into the social and motivational causes of leisure mobility. Thirdly and finally, it aims to estimate the damaging effects upon the environment that have been calculated here for the first time in a way that is lifestyle-specific. The intention is that the target group-specific results should yield conclusions that lead to a reduction in environmental damage caused by leisure traffic (including short breaks). Götz, K.; Loose, W.; Schmied, M.; Schubert, S. (2002) more informationPDF filedownload (189 kByte)
Power Generation Market Concentration in Europe 1996-2000
An empirical Analysis
The liberalisation of the European power market has significantly changed the framework of the electricity industry. The process of market opening and securing fair, transparent and sustainable third party access is still under way. But (incomplete) liberalisation can be thwarted by concentration trends in the electricity generation market. Matthes, F.; Poetzsch, S. (2002) more informationPDF filedownload (710 kByte)
White Paper for the Reform of Chemicals Policy: From Concept to Implementation
Requirements, Experiences and Perspectives in Relation to Information Flow
To investigate the "Organisation of information flow in the product chain", the Verband der Chemischen Industrie e.V. or VCI (German Chemical Industry Association) together with some of its member associations is carrying out the "Product Chain Chemicals Policy" project.
In August 2000, the Öko-Institut e.V. was commissioned by the VCI to direct the working groups established as part of this project and supply content input.
Four working groups were set up, each of which examined a specific substance or group of substances by way of example. The member associations of the VCI that participated in the discussions were the Association of the Plastics Processing Industry (VKE), Association of the Printing Ink Industry, Association of the Paint Industry (VdL) and Industrial Association for Organic Colorants and Pigments (IFOP). Manufacturers, traders and downstream users were also represented in the working groups. The names of the participants are given in Appendix 6 at the end of this Report. The activities of the working groups were guided by a project steering committee, which was composed of representatives of companies and the management of the VCI and trade associations (see also Appendix 6). In the steering committee, a supervisor was appointed for each working group. Bunke, D.; Ebinger, F. (2002) more informationPDF filedownload (1280 kByte)
Final Report for the preparation of an option on the proposed Directive on the Implementation of EU-wide Emission Trading COM(2001) 581
The Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) and the Öko-Institut - Institute for Applied Ecology on behalf of the Ministry for the Environment and Transport of the German State Baden-Württemberg have reviewed the planned Directive on an EU-wide emissions trading scheme (COM(2001) 581). We have tried to tackle the main topics of discussion between the various interest groups. Cames, M.; Stronzik, M. (2002) more informationPDF filedownload (358 kByte)
Environment and Tourism
A basic scientific report for the German federal government
The goal of this basic report is, proceeding from an analysis of the problem, to devise recommendations for action to make tourism more environmentally sound. More specifically, the aim is to identify the environmental effects of tourism in Germany as well as examples of the environmental impacts caused by German tourists abroad; proceeding from that basis, to propose required actions and to recommend measures and tools for the more environmentally sound development of tourism. Schmied, M.; Buchert, M.; Hochfeld, C.; Schmitt, B. (2001) more informationPDF filedownload (226 kByte)
Security of Supply - A challenge for Energy policy in Europe
On November 29th, 2000, the European Commission adopted the Green Paper, Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply, and called for a broad process of discussion. To structure the debate, the Commission presented a questionnair comprising 13 questions. The Green Paper and the questionnaire both focus on the security of energy supply as their starting point, but can also be regarded as a rough outline for a common European energy policy. In addition to the basic issue of extensive energy policy responsibilities for the European Union, the debate centres on further issues concerning reappraisal of nuclear energy and interaction with the areas of liberalization and climate protection policies. Matthes, F. (2001) more informationPDF filedownload (921 kByte)
Analysis of observed adverse effects from the release of genetically modified organisms
When it comes to identifying signs of (undesirable) environmental effects of transgenic organisms release experiments occupy a central role. This is why the gathering, communication, and discussion of release data relevant for the environment should be of central importance. Gathering of such data is faced with certain difficulties: it is estimated that world-wide ecological data are only collected in less than 1 % of releases of genetically modified organisms. Tappeser, B.; Eckelkamp, C.; Weber, B. (2000) more informationPDF filedownload (386 kByte)
Instruments and Options for Environmental Policy during the Accession Processof EU Associated Countries in the Area of Environment and Energy
With regard to the leading role of the EU in climate protection policies, it is important to consider the impact of the accession process on EU climate policy. This study includes the analysis of the most important issues related to environment and energy within the accession process. Cames, M.; Matthes, F.; Bär, S.; Oberthür, S.; Krug, M.; Mez; L.; Tempel, S. (2000) more informationPDF filedownload (4597 kByte)
Who owns biological diversity?
A Brief Description of the Debate over the Rights to Biological Diversity in the North-South Context
In 1992 at the environmental summit in Rio de Janeiro, the Convention on Biological Diversity was finally approved to work against the erosion of genetic diversity within species which accompanies the intensification of breeding and the global success of high-yield varieties, as well as the general loss of species occasioned by industrialization and environmental pollution, all of which have taken on dangerous proportions since the 1950s. This was the first internationally binding agreement obligating all member countries to undertake measures to protect bio-logical diversity. By mid-1999, the Convention had been signed by 175 countries. As such, the Convention has more member countries than the World Trade Organization (134). Partially due to intensive lobbying by the American biotechnology industry, the USA have thus far not become a signatory to the Convention.
As early as 1983, an international agreement was reached under the leadership of FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), which specifically addresses the conservation of plant genetic resources. However, the "International Undertaking for Plant Genetic Resources" is thus far not yet legally binding. It was decided in 1993 to revise the document. The technology conference, which took place in Leipzig in 1996 and was organized within the scope of the "Undertaking," represented an important step toward integrating these two international agreements. The revisions are due to be completed by the end of 2000, and will lead to a legally binding agreement which will possibly become a part of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Tappeser, B.; Baier, A. (2000) more informationPDF filedownload (1141 kByte)
A Comparison of Agri-Environmental Schemes in Great Britain and Germany
Implementation of EU-Regulation No. 2078/92
The theme of the study “A comparison of agri-environmental schemes in Great Britain and Germany – Implementation of Regulation 2078/92” has been developed out of the idea to work out the strategies of agri-environmental schemes in different countries. (2000) more informationPDF filedownload (4020 kByte)
A New Energy Policy for Sweden: Key elements of a sustainable energy future