Legal feasibility study on the introduction of a nanoproduct register
A register of nanoproducts (nanomaterials, mixtures and articles) produced or placed on the market in Germany is legally viable and is workable in practice. The purpose of such a product register and a corresponding mandatory reporting requirement is to provide the authorities with an overview of nanoproducts produced or put on the market in Germany. Following the precautionary principle, the register aims to prevent the emergence of hazards to the life and health of humans (including at their workplace), as well as to the environment as a dynamic complex, that may result from the production, utilisation and disposal of nanoproducts. Hermann, A.; Möller, M. (2010) more informationPDF filedownload (633 kByte)
Corporate Social Responsibility in Europe
Rhetoric and Realities
The acid test of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is simply this: does it lead to positive impacts on society and the environment or is it just rhetoric? And if it does lead to positive impacts, how can these be enhanced? This timely book tackles this cutting-edge challenge by presenting empirical findings from a range of surveys and in-depth case studies. These build on a new methodological and theoretical framework for assessing and explaining the sustainability impact of CSR. Barth, R.; Wolff, F. (2009) more informationPDF filedownload (1 kByte)
Options for a 2020 EU Burden Sharing Agreement
Working Paper for the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety
Within the European Union the Member States face the problem of finding target sharing agreements for different binding and quantified commitments for the total emission reduction commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), for the caps within the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) and regarding the expansion of energy supply from renewable energy sources. The three targets are interlinked and the process for the target sharing agreement follows not in all dimensions the same timing. The paper outlines the different approaches which could constitute the basis for the upcoming debates. The analysis presented in this paper is geared to identifying starting points, general principles and key findings for the debate. Matthes, F.; Graichen, J. (2007) more informationPDF filedownload (748 kByte)
Implementation of Environmental Data Centres
This report contains the results of the pre-study on the “Implementation of Environmental Data Centres” carried out on behalf of Eurostat between December 2006 and August 2007. Zangl, S.; Lohse, J.; Stahl, H.; Schüler, D.; Gensch, C. (2007) more informationPDF filedownload (972 kByte)
Costs and Benefits of Green Public Procurement in Europe
Due to the market power of the purchasing activities of public authorities, green public procurement (GPP) can make an important contribution to reducing environmental impacts and to changing unsustainable production and consumption patterns. Beside the direct positive effects on the environmental impacts, GPP can also stimulate innovation of environmental technologies and serve as an example for private procurement. Rüdenauer, I.; Dross, M.; Eberle, U.; Gensch, C.; Graulich, K.; Hünecke, K.; Koch, Y.; Möller, M.; Quack, D.; Seebach, D.; Zimmer, W.; et al. (2007) more informationPDF filedownload (4215 kByte)
Adaptation to scientific and technical progress under the RoHS Directive
Final Report + Annexes
The EU Directive on the restriction of use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (the so-called RoHS - Restriction of Hazardous Substances – Directive) has come into force on 1 July 2006. It regulates the restriction and prohibition of the substances lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium as well as of certain brominated flame retardants (PBB and PBDE). Industry has the possibility to request an exemption from the provisions of the Directive from the European Commission. The Commission has given the Öko-Institute the mandate to evaluate these requests for exemption. Gensch, C.; Zangl, S.; Möller, M.; Lohse, J. (2006) more informationPDF filedownload (2280 kByte)
OECD Matrix Project
Branch- and product-related emission estimation tool for manufacturers, importers, and downstream users within the REACH-system
The aim of the project is to support the use of already-existing emission estimation data for the exposure assessment which is required under REACH. The overall objective was to develop a set of technical guidance documents (manual and software tools) for emission estimation and subsequent exposure estimation as outlined in annex 1 of the draft REACH Regulation. Such guidance should be robust and easy to use by manufacturers, importers and downstream users of substances. The conceptual approach have been based on the methodology laid down in EU TGD on Risk Assessment of New and Existing Substances (2003) and the OECD Emission Scenario Documents (ESD). The ESD Matrix described in this project gives an overview on existing emission estimation data for several industrial branches. In addition, stand-alone emission estimation tools have developed for two branches (see also www.emissiontool.com). They refer to plastic additives and photochemicals. They have a modular structure and can be easily adopted to supply chains in other branches. The results have been worked out in intense exchange with RIVM, which has developed a guidance how to find the appropriate emission scenarios (see RIVM report Nr. 6012000006). Bunke, D.; Ahrens, A.; Reihlen, A.; Schenck, H.; Oenicke, M. (2006) more informationPDF filedownload (3321 kByte)
Giving wings to emission trading
Inclusion of aviation under the European emission trading system (ETS): design and impacts
The operation and navigation of civil aircraft on domestic flights fall outsidethe scope of the Convention.
The Chicago Convention does not address the issue of emission trading. But,according to its Preamble, the Chicago Convention relates also to establishing international air transport services on the basis of equality of opportunity and sound and economical operation. As emissions trading might in principle have implications in this respect, it is relevant to assess whether the Convention contains any requirements or obstacles with regard to the coverage of international flights by an EU emissions trading scheme.
As outlined in section B, the EU emissions trading scheme can be considered to constitute laws and regulations relating to the admission to and/or departure of aircraft from its territory pursuant to Article 11 of the Convention. Therefore, the requirement in Article 11 of the Convention not to discriminate as to nationality of aircraft needs to be respected. Any EU emissions trading system must thus treat all aircraft engaged in international air navigation without distinction as to nationality.
The coverage of international aviation under the EU emissions trading scheme does not find limits under Article 12 “Rules of the air”, Article 15 “Airport and similar charges” or Article 24 “Customs duty” of the Convention.
Economic measures for the reduction of the environmental impact of air transport
noise-related landing charges (FKZ 201 96 107)
Because of existing growth rates for air traffic and capacity extensions at many international airports, efforts to find effective instruments for the reduction of noise problems increase. Economic instruments gain increasingly in importance. This study examines, with an LTO-charging model differentiated according to aircraft-noise emissions and incentives for air transport companies for the use of less-noisy aircraft. The results of the study are based on a comprehensive status-quo analysis of European LTO-charging models; they demonstrate the need for harmonized development of this kind of instrument as an incentive, in order to be able to obtain transparency and comprehensibility. The study draws attention to a set of guidelines that must be considered in future. Hochfeld, C.; Arps, H.; Hermann LL.M., A.; Schmied, M.; Otten, S.; Hopf, R. (2004) more informationPDF filedownload (1489 kByte)
Emissions trading in international civil aviation
The contribution of international aviation to the greenhouse effect is increasing continually. The study investigates how the contribution of aviation can be reduced or limited through emissions trading. Not only are different design options (trading regime, basis for assessment, obligated parties etc.) examined, but also the avoidance costs and potentials of different reduction measures (flight route optimization, early retirement of aircraft, improvement of aerodynamics etc.) Cames, M.; Deuber,O.; Rath, U. (2004) more informationPDF filedownload (1089 kByte)
Access to Justice in Environmental Matters - ENV.A.3/ETU/2002/0030
Final Report, Country Reports and Case Studies
The main objectives of this study were to identify any general conclusions to be drawn as to the relevance and the consequences of access to justice for environmental NGOs as a general trend in these EU member states and to present appropriate recommendations in relation thereto to the European Commission based on the findings of the study.
Dross, M.; de Sadeleer, N.; Roller, G. (2003) more informationPDF filedownload (2427 kByte)
Implementing Article 10 of the SEA Directive 2001/42/EC
According to Directive 2001/42/EC on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes (SEA Directive) on the environment Member States are obliged to carry out an environmental assessment of certain plans and programmes, which are likely to have significant environmental effects. Art. 10 of the Directive foresees a Monitoring of significant environmental effects of the implementation of plans and programmes. Barth, R.; Fuder, A. (2002) more informationPDF filedownload (368 kByte)
Final Report for the preparation of an option on the proposed Directive on the Implementation of EU-wide Emission Trading COM(2001) 581
The Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) and the Öko-Institut - Institute for Applied Ecology on behalf of the Ministry for the Environment and Transport of the German State Baden-Württemberg have reviewed the planned Directive on an EU-wide emissions trading scheme (COM(2001) 581). We have tried to tackle the main topics of discussion between the various interest groups. Cames, M.; Stronzik, M. (2002) more informationPDF filedownload (358 kByte)