Study on impacts on resource efficiency of future EU demand for bioenergy - ReceBio
The study examines the resource efficiency implications of various levels of EU use of bioenergy for electricity and heat until 2050. Methods of analysis include an extensive literature and statistical review, detailed modelling of cross-sectorial wood biomass production and use, and in-depth analysis of the implications on several sustainability indicators. The results for biomass use for material and energy are reported for EU28, while the sustainability indicators are assessed both for the EU and globally. In addition, country specific assessments were carried out for three case countries (Finland, Germany, and Italy) to examine the results against country-specific policies and resources.
Forsell, N.; Korosuo, A.; Havlík, P.; Valin, H.; Lauri, P.; Gusti, M.; Kindermann, G.; Böttcher, H.; Hennenberg, K.; Hünecke, K.; Wiegmann, K.; Pekkanen, M.; Nuolivirta, P.; Bowyer, C.; Nanni, S.; Allen, B.; Poláková, J.; Fitzgerald, J.; Lindner, M. (2016)
Climate initiatives, national contributions and the Paris Agreement
Draft Discussion Paper evaluating the GHG mitigation contribution of global, regional and national initiatives in relation to nationally determined contributions
Based on an analysis of about 180 international climate initiatives we analysed the potential impact of these initiatives on GHG emissions, shared elements of initiatives which have a high impact and the relationship between such initiatives and the UNFCCC. The study finds that Initiatives can play an important role in the transition to a low carbon economy. We estimate that 19 quantified initiatives have the potential to reduce emissions by approx. 6 11 GtCO2eq. compared to an INDC background in 2030. Corresponding global emissions would peak by 2020 and bring the world much closer to a 2°C compatible pathway. The comparison of stringency between national targets and climate initiatives shows that many initiatives have targets that go beyond those of national governments. If the national governments would take all of the actions into account they could be more ambitious in their national contributions. We also find that active involvement of NGOs either as the leader of an initiative or members tends to lead to higher reductions and more co-benefits. Another common element of many successful initiatives is a permanent secretariat. Voluntary agreements are most suitable for short-term reductions but have a less important role for 2030 targets. Adequate reporting from initiatives would greatly enhance transparency, help replicate impacts, inform national governments and the UNFCCC process and facilitate access to funding for the initiatives themselves. A standardised reporting format could greatly enhance transparency.
Going beyond 40% - options to ensure LULUCF maintains the high environmental integrity of the EU climate and energy package
Report prepared for Fern
The aim of this study is to develop options to identify LULUCF credits with high environmental integrity that could help the EU to formulate a target for the sector. These options are developed by applying criteria and indicators that ensure environmental integrity of potential LULUCF credits. Where possible the volume of credits resulting from the sector is determined. The options are evaluated regarding how they reflect data availability, how robust the metrics are (low uncertainty when measured/collected, low inter-annual variability), whether they follow a transparent approach, and how relevant they are to the LULUCF sector. Also the question how suitable metrics are to set incentives to improve management in the LULUCF sector is of relevance.
Application of the EU Emissions Trading Directive — Analysis of national responses under Article 21 of the EU ETS Directive in 2015
EEA Report No 6/2016
Directive 2003/87/EC (EU, 2003) of the European Parliament and of the Council of the European Union (EU) established the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), which is a key EU policy instrument aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This EEA report considers whether or not the implementation of this directive is on track, if there is potential for improvement in certain areas and whether or not further information is required to determine the status of implementation.
Transition to sound recycling of e-waste and car waste in developing countries
Lessons learned from implementing the Best-of-two-Worlds concept in Ghana and Egypt
A synthesis report of the project Global Circular Economy of Strategic Metals – Best-of-two-Worlds approach (Bo2W)(FKZ 033R097A – D)
Renewable energy in Europe 2016 - Recent growth and knock-on effects
EEA Report No 4/2016
This report complements the findings shown in the "Trends and Projections in Europe 2015 - Tracking progress towards Europe`s climate and energy targets" report with details about the 2013 renewable energy sources (RES) progress at EU and at country level, and for key RES technologies. Furthermore, it provides approximated estimates for RES development in 2014 and seeks to answer the following key questions: Which fossil energy sources were substituted by the growth of RES consumption since 2005 and what would have been their GHG emissions? How do European RES developments compare against renewable energy transformations occurring in other parts of the world?
Implications of the changed reporting requirements of the Effort Sharing Decision for the EU ETS and the national GHG inventory
Work package 1: Comparison of ETS and IPCC emission calculation methodologies
This report analyses the technical provisions related to monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions under the EU ETS and the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national GHG inventories as of beginning 2014. Differences can lead to different reported CO2 (equivalent) emissions under the EU ETS and in the GHG inventory. Some of these issues may also prevent inventory compilers from using verified emissions reported under the ETS directly for emission reporting in the national GHG inventory.
How to finance the Bo2W approach
Global Circular Economy of Strategic Metals – the Bestof- two-Worlds Approach (Bo2W)
Using the Bo2W experience in Ghana, this report reviews the specific financing requirements resulting from the Bo2W approach.
Bleher, D. (2016)
Fukushima: five years on – FAQs
On 11 March 2011, at 2:46 p.m. local time (6.46 a.m. CET), an earthquake measuring 9 on the Richter scale hit the east coast of Japan. The quake caused a tsunami, with waves as high as 38 metres, which led to large-scale flooding and destruction of roads, the power supply and other infrastructure along Japan’s eastern seaboard. The earthquake and tsunami also struck several nuclear power plants. Fukushima Daiichi sustained the worst damage, triggering a chain of events which led to core meltdown, major hydrogen explosions and massive releases of radiation. Below, the Oeko-Institut answers the key questions about the disaster’s timeline, latest assessments of the events, and the current situation in Fukushima.
An efficient & effective e-waste collection system for Ethiopia
Consultancy Service for UNIDO within the E-Waste Management Project in Ethiopia (EWAMP)
This report documents all results of the consultancy project, Consultancy Service on an Efficient and Effective E-waste Collection System for Ethiopia that was jointly carried out by Öko-Institut e.V. and Pesticide Action Nexus Association Ethiopia (PAN-Ethiopia) between April and December 2014.It is part of the E-waste Management Project in Ethiopia (EWAMP Ethiopia) supported by the GEF(GEF ID: 5040). The project is implemented by UNIDO in cooperation withthe Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Communication and Information Technology (MCIT) and the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Environment and Forest (MEF).
Quality assurance and quality control procedure for national and Union GHG projections 2015
ETC/ACM Technical Paper 2015/11
The quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) procedure is an element of the QA/QC programme of the Union system for policies and measures and projections to be established in 2015 according to Article 12 of the MMR. The European Environment Agency (EEA) is responsible for the annual implementation of the QA/QC procedures and is assisted by the European Topic Centre for air pollution and climate change mitigation (ETC/ACM). The QA/QC procedure document describes QA/QC checks carried out at EU level on the national reported projections from Member States and on the compiled Union GHG projections. QA/QC procedures are performed at several different stages during the preparation of the national and Union GHG projections in order to aim to ensure the timeliness, transparency, accuracy, consistency, comparability and completeness of the reported information.
8 th Adaptation to scientific and technical progress of exemptions 2(c), 3 and 5 of Annex II to Directive 2000/53/EC (ELV)
Report for the European Commission DG Environment under Framework Contract N o ENV.C.2/FRA/2011/0020
Under Framework Contract no. ENV.C.2/FRA/2011/0020, a consortium led by Eunomia Research & Consulting was requested by DG Environment of the European Commission to provide technical assistance for the evaluation of selected exemptions of the ELV Directive. The evaluation is to provide recommendations for a clear and unambiguous wording of the reviewed exemptions. The work has been undertaken by the Oeko-Institut, and has been peer reviewed by Eunomia Research & Consulting.
EU effort sharing for the 2021-2030 period
Setting GHG emission targets for EU Member States
The paper develops and evaluates different options for determining annual emission allocations by Member State under a new Effort Sharing Decision for the 2021 to 2030 period based on the conclusions of the European Council of October 2014. To do so, both the starting point as well as the end point of a linear target path need to be agreed upon. The individual 2030 targets by Member State do not affect the environmental effectiveness of the ESD as long as the overall EU target of 30% below 2005 levels in the non-ETS sectors is achieved. The question is therefore more an issue of fair allocation of the total emission budgets. In contrast, the choice of the starting point has the potential to change the total emission budget for the 10-year period by 5-6%.
Cost impacts of ICAO’s Global Market-Based Mechanism
Introducing a Global Market-Based Mechanism (GMBM) for aviation with a requirement to offset emissions above the 2020 baseline would induce additional costs for purchasing offset units. These costs were estimated with the AERO Modelling System. Over the period of 2021 to 2035 and without Route-Based Differentiation (RBD) of the offset requirement, these costs amount to US$ 1.4, 11.3 and 1.7 billion for operators in Africa, Asia, and Latin America / Caribbean, respectively; with RBD the costs amount to US$ 1.0, 9.2 and 1.4 billion, respectively. Differentiation of the offset requirement would thus reduce these costs by 32 %, 19 % or 20 %, respectively. These costs can be compared with revenues from selling offset units. Based on the project pipeline of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), the GMBM-induced supply of offset units can be allocated among the developing country regions. The offset supply from Africa, Asia and Latin America / Caribbean amounts to 0.1, 2.6 and 0.4 billion Certified Emission Reductions (CERs), respectively. With RBD the induced supply is 2.9, 4.6 or 1.8 times higher than the regional demand for offset units, which indicates that Africa, Asia and Latin America / Caribbean are likely to net-profit from the introduction of the GMBM for international aviation. With RBD the costs for purchasing offsets per offset potentially generated in Africa, Asia or Latin America / the Caribbean amount to 12.00, 3.48 and 3.45 US$/t, respectively. If the revenues from offset sales exceed this threshold, Africa, Asia and Latin America / Caribbean would net-benefit from ICAO’s GMBM.
Cames, M.; van Velzen, A. (2016)
Recycling of Hard Disk Drives – Analysing the optimal dismantling depth for recyclers in developing countries and emerging economies
Global Circular Economy of Strategic Metals – the Best-of-two-Worlds Approach (Bo2W)
The report was produced as part of the BMBF-funded project “Global circular economy of strategic metals - best-of-two-worlds approach (Bo2W)” and addresses the recycling of hard disk drives from electronic waste (e-waste). Hard disk drives contain various materials with a high intrinsic value. Nevertheless, the recycling of many of these materials require separation prior to refining. While in industrialized countries hard disk drives are often shredded, manual dismantling often allows generating output fractions of higher purity and thus higher value for recycling. This report analysis the optimal balance between manual labor input and the value of the generated recycling outputs. It is aimed to support decision-making for recyclers operating in developing countries and emerging economies.
Mitigation Commitments and Fair Effort Sharing in a New Comprehensive Climate Agreement Starting 2020
In 2015, all countries are requested to submit their intended mitigation contributions (INDCs) for the new climate agreement which is to be agreed in December 2015. This report analyses the INDCs of 10 selected countries with regard to the question to what extent their mitigation targets are a fair share to globally necessary emission reductions. This analysis is based on different effort sharing approaches. Additionally, national mitigation potentials and mitigation costs as well as the economic development of the country is taken into consideration. Current climate politics and domestic challenges in implementing ambitious climate policies are also described for each country.
Ancygier, A.; Cantzler, J.; Fekete, H.; Hagemann, M.; Höhne, N.; Kandy, D.; Kästner, A.; Kersting, J.; Köhne, A.; Lindberg, M.; Mersmann, F.; Obergassel, W.; Siemons, A.; Schumacher, K.; Wang-Helmreich, H.; Wehnert, T. (2015)
Delivering Results-Based Funding Through Crediting Mechanisms
Assessment of Key Design Options
This study explores how results-based funding could be delivered effectively by using tools and processes of crediting mechanisms. The study focuses on key design aspects for programmes using crediting mechanisms, including the suitability of using crediting mechanisms to deliver results-based funding, achieving a high mitigation impact, fostering transformational change, ensuring environmental and social safeguards, and avoiding double counting of efforts.
Schneider, L.; Spalding-Fecher, R.; Cames, M. (2015)
Ex-post investigation of cost pass-through in the EU ETS
EU industry – especially manufacturers in the cement, iron and steel, refineries and fertiliser sectors – is passing its ETS-related carbon costs through into product prices, meaning that much of this cost burden is borne by customers, according to research conducted by the Oeko-Institut and CE Delft on behalf of the European Commission. The study reveals whether and to what extent ETS-related carbon costs have indeed been passed through in this manner.
Instruments to increase climate policy ambition before 2020 – economic and political implications in selected industry and emerging countries
Pre2020 climate policy ambition - DRAFT VERSION
Emission Reduction Targets for International Aviation and Shipping
This study commissioned by the European Parliament provides an overview of potential CO2 mitigation targets for international aviation and maritime transport and analyses which targets would be compatible with the global long-term goal of keeping the temperature increase below 2°C compared to pre-industrial levels. The analysis supports the view that it is important to establish targets for both sectors which clearly indicate that emissions cannot grow in an unlimited and unregulated way.